In this article, we shall learn the procedure to divide the large numbers. To make it better understandable, lets go through with the division of polynomials. It will help us to understand the procedure better.

Lets take an example, 12x

____________

x-2 | 12x

-(12x

-----------------

16x - 32

-(16x - 32)

-----------------

0

Here, Quotient = 12x + 16 , Remainder = 0

Take one more example, 6x

_______________________

x

- (6x

--------------------------

25x

-(25x

-------------------------

143x

-(143x

---------------------------

548x+1332

Here, Quotient = 6x

Now, see the above example in different form, which will actually be our procedure for division of large numbers

x

2 9 12 54

50 225

286 1287

----------------------------------------

6 25 143 | 548 1332

Quotient = 6x

Following are the steps that we done above:

The first step is to write the divisor. In second line, write all the coefficients except the first, changing all of those to the opposite sign of coefficients. (Here, opposite signs of '-2' and '-9' are '2' and '9' respectively and first coefficient of x

We have to repeat the process up to last digit of the dividend.

Lets take an example, 12x

^{2}-8x-32 by x-2____________

x-2 | 12x

^{2}- 8x - 32 | 12x + 16-(12x

^{2}- 24x)-----------------

16x - 32

-(16x - 32)

-----------------

0

Here, Quotient = 12x + 16 , Remainder = 0

Take one more example, 6x

^{4}+13x^{3}+39x^{2}+37x+45 by x^{2}-2x-9_______________________

x

^{2}-2x-9 | 6x^{4}+ 13x^{3}+ 39x^{2}+ 37x+ 45 | 6x^{2}+ 25x + 143- (6x

^{4 }- 12x^{3}- 54x^{2})--------------------------

25x

^{3}+ 93x^{2}+ 37x-(25x

^{3}- 50x^{2}- 225x)-------------------------

143x

^{2}+ 262x+ 45-(143x

^{2}- 286x -1287)---------------------------

548x+1332

Here, Quotient = 6x

^{2}+ 25x + 143 , Remainder = 548x + 1332Now, see the above example in different form, which will actually be our procedure for division of large numbers

x

^{2}-2x-9 | 6x^{4}+ 13x^{3}+ 39x^{2}| +37x + 45 |2 9 12 54

50 225

286 1287

----------------------------------------

6 25 143 | 548 1332

Quotient = 6x

^{2}+ 25x + 143 , Remainder = 548x + 1332Following are the steps that we done above:

**Step 1: Divisor**( x^{2}-2x-9 )The first step is to write the divisor. In second line, write all the coefficients except the first, changing all of those to the opposite sign of coefficients. (Here, opposite signs of '-2' and '-9' are '2' and '9' respectively and first coefficient of x

^{2}i.e. '1' is not being considered )**Step 2: Dividend**( 6x^{4}+13x^3+39x^{2}+37x + 45 )
The second step is to rearrange the expression of the dividend, leaving space after last two expressions from right. The last two expressions are for the remainder. (Here question arises, how do we know from where we have to split. The answer is : one less than the length of the divisor expression (i.e. number of coefficients + constant). In above expression, length of divisor expression is 3, therefore we shall split after two expressions from right (3 - 1 = 2).

**Step 3: Procedure**- Multiply the first coefficient of the dividend (i.e. '6' in above example) by each digit of the rewritten divisor (i.e. 2 & 9) on the left (we get, 6x2=12, 6x9=54). Write each digit one after the other leaving the first place.
- Now see across the row, add the digits(i.e. 13+12= 25). Now repeat the same as done in Step3(i), multiply '25' by rewritten divisor (i.e. 2 & 9) we get, 25x2=50, 25x9=225. Write each digit one after the other leaving the first two places.
- Repeating the same as done in last step, now add (39+54+50=143). Now multiply 143 by (2 & 9) and we get (286 & 1287).
- Now add remaining columns which is the remainder, add (37+225+286=548, 45+1287=1332) and Quotient is (6 25 143)expression.

We have to repeat the process up to last digit of the dividend.

**IMPORTANT:**In this article, we consider only those divisors whose first digit is unity i.e. '1'. The divisors whose first digit is not '1', will be taken in the next article.