Journal of Formalized Mathematics
Volume 9, 1997
University of Bialystok
Copyright (c) 1997 Association of Mizar Users

## Abian's Fixed Point Theorem

Piotr Rudnicki
University of Alberta, Edmonton
Andrzej Trybulec
Warsaw University, Bialystok

### Summary.

A. Abian  proved the following theorem: \begin{quotation} Let $f$ be a mapping from a finite set $D$. Then $f$ has a fixed point if and only if $D$ is not a union of three mutually disjoint sets $A$, $B$ and $C$ such that $A \cap f[A] = B \cap f[B] = C \cap f[C] = \emptyset.$ \end{quotation} (The range of $f$ is not necessarily the subset of its domain). The proof of the sufficiency is by induction on the number of elements of $D$. A.~M\c{a}kowski and K.~Wi{\'s}niewski  have shown that the assumption of finiteness is superfluous. They proved their version of the theorem for $f$ being a function from $D$ into $D$. In the proof, the required partition was constructed and the construction used the axiom of choice. Their main point was to demonstrate that the use of this axiom in the proof is essential. We have proved in Mizar the generalized version of Abian's theorem, i.e. without assuming finiteness of $D$. We have simplified the proof from  which uses well-ordering principle and transfinite ordinals-our proof does not use these notions but otherwise is based on their idea (we employ choice functions).

This work was partially supported by NSERC Grant OGP9207 and NATO CRG 951368.

#### MML Identifier: ABIAN

The terminology and notation used in this paper have been introduced in the following articles                  

Contents (PDF format)

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