:: Cardinal Numbers
:: by Grzegorz Bancerek
::
:: Received September 19, 1989
:: Copyright (c) 1990-2019 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies ORDINAL1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, XBOOLE_0, TARSKI, WELLORD1, WELLORD2,
ZFMISC_1, ORDINAL2, FUNCOP_1, FINSET_1, SUBSET_1, MCART_1, CARD_1,
BSPACE, NAT_1, XCMPLX_0, FUNCT_4, QUANTAL1;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, ENUMSET1, XTUPLE_0,
MCART_1, FUNCT_1, FUNCOP_1, WELLORD1, ORDINAL1, ORDINAL2, WELLORD2,
FINSET_1, FUNCT_4;
constructors ENUMSET1, WELLORD1, WELLORD2, FUNCOP_1, ORDINAL2, FINSET_1,
XTUPLE_0, FUNCT_4;
registrations XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, FUNCOP_1, FINSET_1,
ZFMISC_1, XTUPLE_0, FUNCT_4;
requirements NUMERALS, SUBSET, BOOLE;
begin
reserve A,B,C for Ordinal,
X,X1,Y,Y1,Z for set,a,b,b1,b2,x,y,z for object,
R for Relation,
f,g,h for Function,
k,m,n for Nat;
definition
let IT be object;
attr IT is cardinal means
:: CARD_1:def 1
ex B st IT = B & for A st A,B are_equipotent holds B c= A;
end;
registration
cluster cardinal for set;
end;
definition
mode Cardinal is cardinal set;
end;
registration
cluster cardinal -> ordinal for set;
end;
reserve M,N for Cardinal;
::$CT
theorem :: CARD_1:2
M,N are_equipotent implies M = N;
theorem :: CARD_1:3
M in N iff M c= N & M <> N;
theorem :: CARD_1:4
M in N iff not N c= M;
definition
let X;
func card X -> Cardinal means
:: CARD_1:def 2
X, it are_equipotent;
projectivity;
end;
registration let C be Cardinal;
reduce card C to C;
end;
registration
cluster empty -> cardinal for set;
end;
registration
let X be empty set;
cluster card X -> empty;
end;
registration
let X be empty set;
cluster card X -> zero;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set;
cluster card X -> non empty;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set;
cluster card X -> non zero;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:5
X,Y are_equipotent iff card X = card Y;
theorem :: CARD_1:6
R is well-ordering implies field R,order_type_of R
are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:7
X c= M implies card X c= M;
theorem :: CARD_1:8
card A c= A;
theorem :: CARD_1:9
X in M implies card X in M;
::$N Cantor-Bernstein Theorem
theorem :: CARD_1:10
card X c= card Y iff ex f st f is one-to-one & dom f = X & rng f c= Y;
theorem :: CARD_1:11
X c= Y implies card X c= card Y;
theorem :: CARD_1:12
card X c= card Y iff ex f st dom f = Y & X c= rng f;
theorem :: CARD_1:13
not X,bool X are_equipotent;
::$N Cantor Theorem
theorem :: CARD_1:14
card X in card bool X;
definition
let X;
func nextcard X -> Cardinal means
:: CARD_1:def 3
card X in it & for M st card X in M holds it c= M;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:15
{} in nextcard X;
theorem :: CARD_1:16
card X = card Y implies nextcard X = nextcard Y;
theorem :: CARD_1:17
X,Y are_equipotent implies nextcard X = nextcard Y;
theorem :: CARD_1:18
A in nextcard A;
reserve S for Sequence;
definition
let M;
attr M is limit_cardinal means
:: CARD_1:def 4
not ex N st M = nextcard N;
end;
definition
let A;
func aleph A -> set means
:: CARD_1:def 5
ex S st it = last S & dom S = succ A & S.0 = card omega &
(for B st succ B in succ A holds S.succ B = nextcard(S.B)) &
for B st B in succ A & B <> 0 & B is limit_ordinal holds S.B = card sup(S|B);
end;
registration
let A;
cluster aleph A -> cardinal;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:19
aleph succ A = nextcard aleph A;
theorem :: CARD_1:20
A <> {} & A is limit_ordinal implies for S st dom S = A & for B st B
in A holds S.B = aleph B holds aleph A = card sup S;
theorem :: CARD_1:21
A in B iff aleph A in aleph B;
theorem :: CARD_1:22
aleph A = aleph B implies A = B;
theorem :: CARD_1:23
A c= B iff aleph A c= aleph B;
theorem :: CARD_1:24
X c= Y & Y c= Z & X,Z are_equipotent implies X,Y are_equipotent & Y,Z
are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:25
bool Y c= X implies card Y in card X & not Y,X are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:26
X,{} are_equipotent implies X = {};
theorem :: CARD_1:27
card {} = 0;
theorem :: CARD_1:28
for x being object holds
X,{x} are_equipotent iff ex x being object st X = { x };
theorem :: CARD_1:29
for x being object holds
card X = card { x } iff ex x being object st X = { x };
theorem :: CARD_1:30
for x being object holds card { x } = 1;
theorem :: CARD_1:31
X misses X1 & Y misses Y1 & X,Y are_equipotent & X1,Y1
are_equipotent implies X \/ X1,Y \/ Y1 are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:32
x in X & y in X implies X \ { x },X \ { y } are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:33
X c= dom f & f is one-to-one implies X,f.:X are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:34
X,Y are_equipotent & x in X & y in Y implies X \ { x },Y \ { y }
are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:35
succ X, succ Y are_equipotent implies X, Y are_equipotent;
theorem :: CARD_1:36
n = {} or ex m st n = succ m;
theorem :: CARD_1:37
x in omega implies x is cardinal;
registration
cluster natural -> cardinal for number;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:38
X,Y are_equipotent & X is finite implies Y is finite;
theorem :: CARD_1:39
n is finite & card n is finite;
theorem :: CARD_1:40
card n = card m implies n = m;
theorem :: CARD_1:41
card n c= card m iff n c= m;
theorem :: CARD_1:42
card n in card m iff n in m;
::$CT
theorem :: CARD_1:44
nextcard card n = card succ n;
:: definition
:: let n be Nat;
:: redefine func succ n -> Element of omega;
:: coherence by ORDINAL1:def 12;
:: end;
definition
let X be finite set;
redefine func card X -> Element of omega;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:45
X is finite implies nextcard X is finite;
scheme :: CARD_1:sch 1
CardinalInd { Sigma[set] }: for M holds Sigma[M]
provided
Sigma[{}] and
for M st Sigma[M] holds Sigma[nextcard M] and
for M st M <> {} & M is limit_cardinal & for N st N in M holds Sigma
[N] holds Sigma[M];
scheme :: CARD_1:sch 2
CardinalCompInd { Sigma[set] }: for M holds Sigma[M]
provided
for M st for N st N in M holds Sigma[N] holds Sigma[M];
theorem :: CARD_1:46
aleph 0 = omega;
registration
cluster omega -> cardinal for number;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:47
card omega = omega;
registration
cluster omega -> limit_cardinal;
end;
registration
cluster -> finite for Element of omega;
end;
registration
cluster finite for Cardinal;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:48
for M being finite Cardinal ex n st M = card n;
registration
let X be finite set;
cluster card X -> finite;
end;
registration
cluster omega -> infinite;
end;
registration
cluster infinite for set;
end;
registration
let X be infinite set;
cluster card X -> infinite;
end;
begin :: The meaning of numerals, 2006.08.25
theorem :: CARD_1:49
1 = { 0 };
theorem :: CARD_1:50
2 = { 0,1 };
theorem :: CARD_1:51
3 = { 0,1,2 };
theorem :: CARD_1:52
4 = { 0,1,2,3 };
theorem :: CARD_1:53
5 = { 0,1,2,3,4 };
theorem :: CARD_1:54
6 = { 0,1,2,3,4,5 };
theorem :: CARD_1:55
7 = { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 };
theorem :: CARD_1:56
8 = { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 };
theorem :: CARD_1:57
9 = { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 };
theorem :: CARD_1:58
10 = { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 };
:: Moved from FRECHET2 by AK on 27.12.2006
theorem :: CARD_1:59
for f being Function st dom f is infinite & f is one-to-one holds rng
f is infinite;
:: from ALGSEQ_1, 2007.03.18, A.T.
reserve k,n,m for Nat;
registration
cluster non zero natural for object;
cluster non zero for Nat;
end;
registration let n be non zero natural Number;
cluster Segm n -> non empty;
end;
reserve l for Element of omega;
definition
let n be natural Number;
redefine func Segm n -> Subset of omega;
end;
:: from CARD_4, 2007.08.16, A.T.
theorem :: CARD_1:60
A,n are_equipotent implies A = n;
theorem :: CARD_1:61
A is finite iff A in omega;
registration
cluster natural -> finite for set;
end;
:: from CARD_4, CARD_5 etc. 2008.02.21, A.T.
registration
let A be infinite set;
cluster bool A -> infinite;
let B be non empty set;
cluster [:A,B:] ->infinite;
cluster [:B,A:] ->infinite;
end;
registration
let X be infinite set;
cluster infinite for Subset of X;
end;
:: from NECKLA_2, 2008.06.28, A.T.
registration
cluster finite ordinal -> natural for number;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:62
for f being Function holds card f = card dom f;
registration
let X be finite set;
cluster RelIncl X -> finite;
end;
:: from AMISTD_2, 2010.01.10, A.T
theorem :: CARD_1:63
RelIncl X is finite implies X is finite;
theorem :: CARD_1:64
card(k -->x) = k;
begin :: n-element set, 2010.11.17, A.T.
definition
::$CD
let N be object, X be set;
attr X is N-element means
:: CARD_1:def 7
card X = N;
end;
registration let N be Cardinal;
cluster N-element for set;
end;
registration
cluster 0-element -> empty for set;
cluster empty -> 0-element for set;
end;
registration let x be object;
cluster {x} -> 1-element;
end;
registration let N be Cardinal;
cluster N-element for Function;
end;
registration let N be Cardinal; let f be N-element Function;
cluster dom f -> N-element;
end;
registration
cluster 1-element -> trivial non empty for set;
cluster trivial non empty -> 1-element for set;
end;
registration let X be non empty set;
cluster 1-element for Subset of X;
end;
definition let X be non empty set;
mode Singleton of X is 1-element Subset of X;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:65
for X being non empty set, A being Singleton of X
ex x being Element of X st A = {x};
theorem :: CARD_1:66
card X c= card Y iff ex f st X c= f.:Y;
theorem :: CARD_1:67
card (f.:X) c= card X;
theorem :: CARD_1:68
card X in card Y implies Y \ X <> {};
theorem :: CARD_1:69
for x being object holds
X,[:X,{x}:] are_equipotent & card X = card [:X,{x}:];
:: from POLYFORM, 2011.07.25, A.T.
theorem :: CARD_1:70
for f being Function st f is one-to-one holds card dom f = card rng f;
registration
let F be non trivial set;
let A be Singleton of F;
cluster F\A -> non empty;
end;
registration let k be non empty Cardinal;
cluster k-element -> non empty for set;
end;
registration let k be natural Number;
cluster Segm k -> finite;
end;
theorem :: CARD_1:71
for f being Function, x,y being object
holds card(f+~(x,y)) = card f;
registration let n be non zero natural Number;
cluster Segm n -> with_zero;
end;