:: Valuation Theory, Part {I}
:: by Grzegorz Bancerek , Hidetsune Kobayashi and Artur Korni{\l}owicz
::
:: Received April 7, 2011
:: Copyright (c) 2011-2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies INT_1, VECTSP_1, FUNCT_1, ARYTM_3, ZFMISC_1, RELAT_1, RLVECT_1,
FUNCOP_1, ARYTM_1, BINOP_1, FUNCSDOM, REALSET1, LATTICES, GROUP_1,
ORDINAL2, IDEAL_1, FINSEQ_1, SUBSET_1, VECTSP_2, FUNCT_3, NUMBERS,
GROUP_4, STRUCT_0, RLSUB_1, XXREAL_2, ALGSTR_0, XCMPLX_0, REALSET2,
NAT_1, REAL_1, INT_2, XXREAL_0, TARSKI, XREAL_0, XBOOLE_0, NEWTON,
CARD_FIL, RMOD_2, CARD_1, SUPINF_2, MESFUNC1, PARTFUN1, COMPLEX1,
MEMBERED, MSSUBFAM, FVALUAT1;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, DOMAIN_1,
RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, RELSET_1, PARTFUN1, FUNCT_2, FUNCOP_1, XXREAL_0,
XREAL_0, XXREAL_2, XXREAL_3, XCMPLX_0, REAL_1, INT_1, MEMBERED, SUPINF_2,
EXTREAL1, INT_2, MESFUNC1, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_4, REALSET1, BINOP_1,
STRUCT_0, ALGSTR_0, RLVECT_1, GRCAT_1, GROUP_1, YELLOW_9, VECTSP_1,
VECTSP_2, REALSET2, RMOD_2, IDEAL_1, RING_1;
constructors REAL_1, FINSEQ_4, SUPINF_2, EXTREAL1, MESFUNC1, RMOD_2, YELLOW_9,
RING_1, BINOM, FUNCOP_1, REALSET2, RELSET_1, GRCAT_1, NEWTON;
registrations RELSET_1, VECTSP_1, INT_1, XREAL_0, ALGSTR_1, VECTSP_2,
STRUCT_0, NAT_1, SUBSET_1, WAYBEL_2, XBOOLE_0, RMOD_2, XCMPLX_0, IDEAL_1,
RING_1, XXREAL_0, NUMBERS, MEMBERED, ORDINAL1, ALGSTR_0, XXREAL_3,
REALSET2, FINSEQ_1, CARD_1;
requirements NUMERALS, ARITHM, REAL, BOOLE, SUBSET;
begin :: Extended reals
reserve x, y, z, s for ExtReal;
reserve i, j for Integer;
reserve n, m for Nat;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:1
x = -x implies x = 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:2
x + x = 0 implies x = 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:3
0 <= x & x <= y & 0 <= s & s <= z implies x*s <= y*z;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:4
y <> +infty & 0 < x & 0 < y implies 0 < x / y;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:5
y <> +infty & x < 0 & 0 < y implies x / y < 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:6
y <> -infty & 0 < x & y < 0 implies x / y < 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:7
x in REAL & y in REAL or z in REAL implies
(x + y) / z = x/z + y/z;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:8
y <> +infty & y <> -infty & y <> 0 implies x / y * y = x;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:9
y <> -infty & y <> +infty & x <> 0 & y <> 0 implies x / y <> 0;
definition let x be object;
attr x is ext-integer means
:: FVALUAT1:def 1
x is integer or x = +infty;
end;
registration
cluster ext-integer -> ext-real for object;
end;
registration
cluster +infty -> ext-integer;
cluster -infty -> non ext-integer;
cluster 1. -> ext-integer positive real;
cluster integer -> ext-integer for object;
cluster real ext-integer -> integer for object;
end;
registration
cluster real ext-integer positive for Element of ExtREAL;
cluster positive for ext-integer object;
end;
definition
mode ExtInt is ext-integer object;
end;
reserve x, y, v, u for ExtInt;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:10
x < y implies x + 1 <= y;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:11
-infty < x;
definition
let X be ext-real-membered set;
given i0 being positive ExtInt such that
i0 in X;
func least-positive(X) -> positive ExtInt means
:: FVALUAT1:def 2
it in X &
for i being positive ExtInt st i in X holds it <= i;
end;
definition let f be Relation;
attr f is e.i.-valued means
:: FVALUAT1:def 3
for x being set st x in rng f holds x is ext-integer;
end;
registration
cluster e.i.-valued for Function;
end;
registration
let A be set;
cluster e.i.-valued for Function of A, ExtREAL;
end;
registration
let f be e.i.-valued Function, x be set;
cluster f.x -> ext-integer;
end;
begin :: Structures
theorem :: FVALUAT1:12
for K being distributive left_unital add-associative right_zeroed
right_complementable non empty doubleLoopStr holds
(-1.K) * (-1.K) = 1.K;
definition
let K be non empty doubleLoopStr;
let S be Subset of K;
let n be Nat;
func S |^ n -> Subset of K means
:: FVALUAT1:def 4
it = the carrier of K if n = 0 otherwise
ex f being FinSequence of bool the carrier of K st
it = f.len f & len f = n & f.1 = S &
for i being Nat st i in dom f & i+1 in dom f holds
f.(i+1) = S *' (f/.i);
end;
reserve
D for non empty doubleLoopStr,
A for Subset of D;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:13
A |^ 1 = A;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:14
A |^ 2 = A *' A;
registration
let R be Ring;
let S be Ideal of R;
let n be Nat;
cluster S|^n -> non empty add-closed left-ideal right-ideal;
end;
definition
let G be non empty doubleLoopStr,
g be Element of G,
i be Integer;
func g |^ i -> Element of G equals
:: FVALUAT1:def 5
power(G).(g,|.i.|) if 0 <= i
otherwise /(power(G).(g,|.i.|));
end;
definition
let G be non empty doubleLoopStr,
g be Element of G,
n be Nat;
redefine func g |^ n equals
:: FVALUAT1:def 6
power(G).(g,n);
end;
reserve K for Field-like non degenerated
associative add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable
distributive Abelian non empty doubleLoopStr,
a, b, c for Element of K;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:15
a |^ (n + m) = (a |^ n) * (a |^ m);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:16
a <> 0.K implies a|^i <> 0.K;
begin :: Valuation
definition let K be doubleLoopStr;
attr K is having_valuation means
:: FVALUAT1:def 7
ex f being e.i.-valued Function of K, ExtREAL st
f.0.K = +infty &
(for a being Element of K st a <> 0.K holds f.a in INT) &
(for a,b being Element of K holds f.(a*b) = f.a + f.b) &
(for a being Element of K st 0 <= f.a holds 0 <= f.(1.K+a)) &
ex a being Element of K st f.a <> 0 & f.a <> +infty;
end;
definition let K be doubleLoopStr such that
K is having_valuation;
mode Valuation of K -> e.i.-valued Function of K, ExtREAL means
:: FVALUAT1:def 8
it.0.K = +infty &
(for a being Element of K st a <> 0.K holds it.a in INT) &
(for a,b being Element of K holds it.(a*b) = it.a + it.b) &
(for a being Element of K st 0 <= it.a holds 0 <= it.(1.K+a)) &
ex a being Element of K st it.a <> 0 & it.a <> +infty;
end;
reserve v for Valuation of K;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:17
K is having_valuation implies v.1.K = 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:18
K is having_valuation & a <> 0.K implies v.a <> +infty;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:19
K is having_valuation implies v.-1.K = 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:20
K is having_valuation implies v.-a = v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:21
K is having_valuation & a <> 0.K implies v.(a") = -v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:22
K is having_valuation & b <> 0.K implies v.(a/b) = v.a - v.b;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:23
K is having_valuation & a <> 0.K & b <> 0.K implies v.(a/b) = -v.(b/a);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:24
K is having_valuation & b <> 0.K & 0 <= v.(a/b) implies v.b <= v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:25
K is having_valuation & a <> 0.K & b <> 0.K & v.(a/b) <= 0 implies
0 <= v.(b/a);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:26
K is having_valuation & b <> 0.K & v.(a/b) <= 0 implies v.a <= v.b;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:27
K is having_valuation implies min(v.a,v.b) <= v.(a+b);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:28
K is having_valuation & v.a < v.b implies v.a = v.(a+b);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:29
K is having_valuation & a <> 0.K implies v.(a|^i) = i * v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:30
K is having_valuation & 0 <= v.(1.K+a) implies 0 <= v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:31
K is having_valuation & 0 <= v.(1.K-a) implies 0 <= v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:32
K is having_valuation & a <> 0.K & v.a <= v.b implies 0 <= v.(b/a);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:33
K is having_valuation implies +infty in rng v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:34
v.a = 1 implies least-positive(rng v) = 1;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:35
K is having_valuation implies least-positive(rng v) is integer;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:36
K is having_valuation implies
for x being Element of K st x <> 0.K
ex i being Integer st v.x = i * least-positive(rng v);
definition
let K, v;
assume
K is having_valuation;
func Pgenerator(v) -> Element of K equals
:: FVALUAT1:def 9
the Element of v"{least-positive(rng v)};
end;
definition
let K, v;
assume
K is having_valuation;
func normal-valuation(v) -> Valuation of K means
:: FVALUAT1:def 10
v.a = (it.a) * least-positive(rng v);
end;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:37
K is having_valuation implies
(v.a = 0 iff normal-valuation(v).a = 0);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:38
K is having_valuation implies
(v.a = +infty iff normal-valuation(v).a = +infty);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:39
K is having_valuation implies
(v.a = v.b iff normal-valuation(v).a = normal-valuation(v).b);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:40
K is having_valuation implies
(v.a is positive iff normal-valuation(v).a is positive);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:41
K is having_valuation implies
(0 <= v.a iff 0 <= normal-valuation(v).a);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:42
K is having_valuation implies
(v.a is non negative iff normal-valuation(v).a is non negative);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:43
K is having_valuation implies normal-valuation(v).Pgenerator(v) = 1;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:44
K is having_valuation & 0 <= v.a implies normal-valuation(v).a <= v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:45
K is having_valuation & v.a = 1 implies normal-valuation(v) = v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:46
K is having_valuation implies
normal-valuation(normal-valuation(v)) = normal-valuation(v);
begin :: Valuation Ring
definition
let K be non empty doubleLoopStr;
let v be Valuation of K;
func NonNegElements v -> set equals
:: FVALUAT1:def 11
{x where x is Element of K: 0 <= v.x};
end;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:47
for K being non empty doubleLoopStr,
v being Valuation of K,
a being Element of K holds
a in NonNegElements v iff 0 <= v.a;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:48
for K being non empty doubleLoopStr,
v being Valuation of K holds
NonNegElements v c= the carrier of K;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:49
for K being non empty doubleLoopStr,
v being Valuation of K holds
K is having_valuation implies 0.K in NonNegElements v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:50
K is having_valuation implies 1.K in NonNegElements v;
definition
let K, v such that
K is having_valuation;
func ValuatRing v -> strict commutative non degenerated Ring means
:: FVALUAT1:def 12
the carrier of it = NonNegElements v &
the addF of it = (the addF of K) | [:NonNegElements v,NonNegElements v:] &
the multF of it = (the multF of K) | [:NonNegElements v,NonNegElements v:] &
the ZeroF of it = 0.K &
the OneF of it = 1.K;
end;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:51
K is having_valuation implies
for x being Element of ValuatRing v holds x is Element of K;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:52
K is having_valuation implies
(0 <= v.a iff a is Element of ValuatRing v);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:53
K is having_valuation implies
for S being Subset of ValuatRing v holds 0 is LowerBound of v.:S;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:54
K is having_valuation implies
for x, y being Element of K,
x1, y1 being Element of ValuatRing v st x = x1 & y = y1 holds
x + y = x1 + y1;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:55
K is having_valuation implies
for x, y being Element of K,
x1, y1 being Element of ValuatRing v st x = x1 & y = y1 holds
x * y = x1 * y1;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:56
K is having_valuation implies 0.ValuatRing v = 0.K;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:57
K is having_valuation implies 1.ValuatRing v = 1.K;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:58
K is having_valuation implies
for x being Element of K, y being Element of ValuatRing v
st x = y holds -x = -y;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:59
K is having_valuation implies ValuatRing v is domRing-like;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:60
K is having_valuation implies
for y being Element of ValuatRing v holds
power(K).(y,n) = power(ValuatRing v).(y,n);
definition
let K, v; assume
K is having_valuation;
func PosElements v -> Ideal of ValuatRing v equals
:: FVALUAT1:def 13
{x where x is Element of K: 0 < v.x};
end;
notation let K, v;
synonym vp v for PosElements v;
end;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:61
K is having_valuation implies
(a in vp v iff 0 < v.a);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:62
K is having_valuation implies 0.K in vp v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:63
K is having_valuation implies not 1.K in vp v;
definition
let K, v;
let S be non empty Subset of K;
assume that
K is having_valuation and
S is Subset of ValuatRing v;
func min(S,v) -> Subset of ValuatRing v equals
:: FVALUAT1:def 14
v"{inf(v.:S)} /\ S;
end;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:64
for S being non empty Subset of K st
K is having_valuation & S is Subset of ValuatRing v
holds min(S,v) c= S;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:65
for S being non empty Subset of K st
K is having_valuation & S is Subset of ValuatRing v
for x being Element of K holds x in min(S,v) iff x in S &
for y being Element of K st y in S holds v.x <= v.y;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:66
K is having_valuation implies
for I being non empty Subset of K, x being Element of ValuatRing v st
I is Ideal of ValuatRing v & x in min(I,v) holds
I = {x}-Ideal;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:67
for R being non empty doubleLoopStr,
I being add-closed non empty Subset of R holds
I is Preserv of the addF of R;
definition
let R be Ring;
let P be RightIdeal of R;
mode Submodule of P -> Submodule of RightModule R means
:: FVALUAT1:def 15
the carrier of it = P;
end;
registration
let R be Ring;
let P be RightIdeal of R;
cluster strict for Submodule of P;
end;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:68
for R being Ring, P being Ideal of R, M being Submodule of P
for a being BinOp of P, z be Element of P
for m being Function of [:P,the carrier of R:], P
st a = (the addF of R)|[:P,P:] &
m = (the multF of R)|[:P,the carrier of R:] & z = the ZeroF of R
holds the RightModStr of M = RightModStr(#P,a,z,m#);
definition
let R be Ring;
let M1,M2 be RightMod of R;
let h be Function of M1,M2;
attr h is scalar-linear means
:: FVALUAT1:def 16
for x being Element of M1, r being Element of R holds h.(x*r) = (h.x)*r;
end;
registration
let R be Ring, M1 be RightMod of R, M2 be Submodule of M1;
cluster incl(M2,M1) -> additive scalar-linear;
end;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:69
K is having_valuation & b is Element of ValuatRing v
implies v.a <= v.a + v.b;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:70
K is having_valuation & a is Element of ValuatRing v implies
power(K).(a,n) is Element of ValuatRing v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:71
K is having_valuation implies
for x being Element of ValuatRing v st x <> 0.K
holds power(K).(x,n) <> 0.K;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:72
K is having_valuation & v.a = 0 implies
a is Element of ValuatRing v & a" is Element of ValuatRing v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:73
K is having_valuation & a <> 0.K &
a is Element of ValuatRing v & a" is Element of ValuatRing v implies
v.a = 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:74
K is having_valuation & v.a = 0 implies
for I being Ideal of ValuatRing v holds
a in I iff I = the carrier of ValuatRing v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:75
K is having_valuation implies Pgenerator(v) is Element of ValuatRing v;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:76
K is having_valuation implies vp(v) is proper;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:77
K is having_valuation implies
for x being Element of ValuatRing v st not x in vp(v)
holds v.x = 0;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:78
K is having_valuation implies vp(v) is prime;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:79
K is having_valuation implies
for I being proper Ideal of ValuatRing v holds I c= vp(v);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:80
K is having_valuation implies vp(v) is maximal;
theorem :: FVALUAT1:81
K is having_valuation implies
for I being maximal Ideal of ValuatRing v holds I = vp(v);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:82
K is having_valuation implies
NonNegElements(normal-valuation v) = NonNegElements(v);
theorem :: FVALUAT1:83
K is having_valuation implies
ValuatRing(normal-valuation v) = ValuatRing v;