:: Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem for Simplexes
:: by Karol P\kak
::
:: Received December 21, 2010
:: Copyright (c) 2010-2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies ABIAN, AOFA_I00, ARYTM_1, ARYTM_3, CARD_1, CARD_3, CLASSES1,
COMPLEX1, CONVEX1, EUCLID, EUCLID_9, FINSEQ_1, FINSEQ_2, FINSEQ_4,
FINSET_1, FUNCOP_1, FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, FUNCT_4, GLIB_000, INT_1, MATROID0,
MEASURE5, MEMBERED, METRIC_1, NAT_1, NEWTON, NUMBERS, ORDERS_1, ORDINAL1,
ORDINAL2, ORDINAL4, PARTFUN1, PCOMPS_1, PEPIN, POWER, PRE_TOPC, QC_LANG1,
RCOMP_1, REAL_1, RELAT_1, RLAFFIN1, RLAFFIN2, RLVECT_1, RLVECT_2,
RLVECT_5, RUSUB_4, SEMI_AF1, SEQ_4, SETFAM_1, SGRAPH1, SIMPLEX0,
SIMPLEX1, SQUARE_1, STRUCT_0, SUBSET_1, SUPINF_2, TARSKI, TOPDIM_1,
TOPMETR, TOPS_1, TOPS_2, VALUED_1, WEIERSTR, XBOOLE_0, XREAL_0, XXREAL_0,
XXREAL_1, XXREAL_2, ZFMISC_1, SIMPLEX2;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, ORDINAL1, ZFMISC_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1,
RELSET_1, FUNCT_2, PARTFUN1, FUNCOP_1, FUNCT_4, XXREAL_3, VALUED_1,
PRE_TOPC, NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0, XREAL_0, FINSEQ_1, BINOP_1, FINSEQ_2,
TOPMETR, METRIC_1, EUCLID, FINSET_1, XXREAL_0, REAL_1, SETFAM_1, TOPS_2,
INT_1, STRUCT_0, COMPTS_1, PCOMPS_1, RCOMP_1, WEIERSTR, SEQ_4, XXREAL_2,
RVSUM_1, RLVECT_1, RUSUB_4, RLVECT_5, SIMPLEX0, RLAFFIN1, RLAFFIN2,
SIMPLEX1, ORDERS_1, CARD_1, DOMAIN_1, PENCIL_1, CLASSES1, RLTOPSP1,
MATROID0, TBSP_1, MEMBERED, RLVECT_2, CONVEX1, TOPREAL9, COMPLEX1,
NEWTON, POWER, SQUARE_1, BORSUK_1, CARD_3, EUCLID_9, TMAP_1, FINSEQOP,
ABIAN, TOPDIM_1, TOPDIM_2, RLAFFIN3;
constructors ABIAN, BINOP_2, COMPTS_1, CONVEX1, EUCLID_9, FINSEQOP, FUNCSDOM,
MONOID_0, NEWTON, POWER, REAL_1, RFINSEQ2, RLAFFIN1, RLAFFIN2, RLAFFIN3,
RLVECT_5, RUSUB_5, SEQ_4, SIMPLEX1, SQUARE_1, TBSP_1, TMAP_1, TOPDIM_1,
TOPDIM_2, TOPREAL9, TOPS_2, WAYBEL23, WEIERSTR, RCOMP_1;
registrations BORSUK_1, BORSUK_2, CARD_1, COMPTS_1, EUCLID, EUCLID_9,
FINSEQ_1, FINSET_1, FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, INT_1, JORDAN2B, JORDAN2C,
MEMBERED, METRIZTS, MONOID_0, NAT_1, NEWTON, NUMBERS, PCOMPS_1, PRE_TOPC,
RELAT_1, RELSET_1, RLAFFIN1, RLAFFIN3, SEQ_4, SIMPLEX0, SIMPLEX1,
STRUCT_0, SUBSET_1, TBSP_1, TMAP_1, TOPDIM_1, TOPDIM_2, TOPMETR,
TOPREAL9, TOPREALC, TOPS_1, VALUED_0, VALUED_1, XBOOLE_0, XREAL_0,
XXREAL_0, XXREAL_2, XXREAL_3, YELLOW13, JORDAN, ORDINAL1;
requirements REAL, SUBSET, NUMERALS, ARITHM, BOOLE;
begin :: The Lebesgue Number
reserve M for non empty MetrSpace,
F,G for open Subset-Family of TopSpaceMetr M;
definition
let M such that
TopSpaceMetr M is compact;
let F be Subset-Family of TopSpaceMetr M such that
F is open and
F is Cover of TopSpaceMetr M;
mode Lebesgue_number of F -> positive Real means
:: SIMPLEX2:def 1
for p be Point of M
ex A be Subset of TopSpaceMetr M st A in F & Ball(p,it) c= A;
end;
reserve L for Lebesgue_number of F;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:1
TopSpaceMetr M is compact & F is Cover of TopSpaceMetr M & F c= G
implies L is Lebesgue_number of G;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:2
TopSpaceMetr M is compact & F is Cover of TopSpaceMetr M & F is_finer_than G
implies L is Lebesgue_number of G;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:3
for L1 be positive Real st TopSpaceMetr M is compact &
F is Cover of TopSpaceMetr M & L1 <= L
holds L1 is Lebesgue_number of F;
begin :: Bounded Simplicial Complexes
reserve n,k for Nat,
r for Real,
X for set,
M for Reflexive non empty MetrStruct,
A for Subset of M,
K for SimplicialComplexStr;
registration let M;
cluster finite -> bounded for Subset of M;
end;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:4
for S be finite non empty Subset of M
ex p,q be Point of M st p in S & q in S & dist(p,q) = diameter S;
definition let M,K;
attr K is M bounded means
:: SIMPLEX2:def 2
ex r st for A st A in the topology of K holds
A is bounded & diameter A <= r;
end;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:5
for K be non void SimplicialComplexStr st
K is M bounded & A is Simplex of K
holds A is bounded;
registration let M,X;
cluster M bounded non void for SimplicialComplex of X;
end;
registration let M;
cluster M bounded non void subset-closed finite-membered
for SimplicialComplexStr;
end;
registration let M,X;
let K be M bounded SimplicialComplexStr of X;
cluster -> M bounded for (SubSimplicialComplex of K);
end;
registration
let M,X;
let K be M bounded subset-closed SimplicialComplexStr of X;
let i be dim-like number;
cluster Skeleton_of(K,i) -> M bounded;
end;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:6
K is finite-vertices implies K is M bounded;
begin
definition let M;
let K be SimplicialComplexStr such that
K is M bounded;
func diameter(M,K) -> Real means
:: SIMPLEX2:def 3
(for A st A in the topology of K holds diameter A <= it)
& for r st (for A st A in the topology of K holds diameter A <= r)
holds r >= it if the topology of K meets bool [#]M
otherwise it = 0;
end;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:7
K is M bounded implies 0 <= diameter(M,K);
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:8
for K be M bounded SimplicialComplexStr of X,
KX be SubSimplicialComplex of K
holds diameter(M,KX) <= diameter(M,K);
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:9
for K be M bounded subset-closed SimplicialComplexStr of X,
i be dim-like number
holds
diameter(M,Skeleton_of(K,i)) <= diameter(M,K);
definition let M;
let K be M bounded non void subset-closed SimplicialComplexStr;
redefine func diameter(M,K) means
:: SIMPLEX2:def 4
(for A st A is Simplex of K holds diameter A <= it) &
for r st (for A st A is Simplex of K holds diameter A <= r)
holds r >= it;
end;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:10
for S be finite Subset of M holds diameter(M,Complex_of{S}) = diameter S;
definition
let n;
let K be SimplicialComplexStr of TOP-REAL n;
attr K is bounded means
:: SIMPLEX2:def 5
K is (Euclid n) bounded;
func diameter K -> Real equals
:: SIMPLEX2:def 6
diameter(Euclid n,K);
end;
registration
let n;
cluster bounded -> Euclid n bounded for (SimplicialComplexStr of TOP-REAL n);
cluster bounded affinely-independent simplex-join-closed non void
finite-degree total for SimplicialComplex of TOP-REAL n;
cluster finite-vertices -> bounded for SimplicialComplexStr of TOP-REAL n;
end;
begin :: The Estimation of Diameter of the Barycentric Subdivision
reserve V for RealLinearSpace,
Kv for non void SimplicialComplex of V;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:11
for S be Simplex of BCS Kv
for F be c=-linear finite finite-membered Subset-Family of V st
S = (center_of_mass V).:F
for a1,a2 be VECTOR of V st a1 in S & a2 in S
ex b1,b2 be VECTOR of V,r be Real st
b1 in Vertices BCS Complex_of{union F} &
b2 in Vertices BCS Complex_of{union F} &
a1-a2 = r*(b1-b2) & 0 <= r & r <= (card union F-1)/card union F;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:12
for A be affinely-independent Subset of TOP-REAL n
for E be Enumeration of A st dom E\X is non empty
holds
conv(E.:X) = meet{conv(A\{E.k}) where k is Element of NAT: k in dom E\X};
reserve A for Subset of TOP-REAL n;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:13
for a be bounded Subset of Euclid n st a=A
for p be Point of Euclid n st p in conv A holds
conv A c= cl_Ball(p,diameter a);
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:14
A is bounded iff conv A is bounded;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:15
for a,ca be bounded Subset of Euclid n st ca = conv A & a = A holds
diameter a = diameter ca;
registration
let n;
let K be bounded SimplicialComplexStr of TOP-REAL n;
cluster -> bounded for SubdivisionStr of K;
end;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:16
for K be bounded finite-degree non void SimplicialComplex of TOP-REAL n st
|.K.| c= [#]K
holds diameter BCS K <= degree K/(degree K+1) * diameter K;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:17
for K be bounded finite-degree non void SimplicialComplex of TOP-REAL n st
|.K.| c= [#]K
holds diameter BCS(k,K) <= (degree K/(degree K+1))|^k * diameter K;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:18
for K be bounded finite-degree non void SimplicialComplex of TOP-REAL n st
|.K.| c= [#]K for r st r>0 ex k st diameter BCS(k,K) < r;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:19
for i,j be Element of NAT
ex f be Function of[:TOP-REAL i,TOP-REAL j:],TOP-REAL(i+j) st
f is being_homeomorphism &
for fi be Element of TOP-REAL i,fj be Element of TOP-REAL j
holds f.(fi,fj) = fi^fj;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:20
for i,j be Element of NAT
for f be Function of [:TOP-REAL i,TOP-REAL j:],TOP-REAL(i+j) st
for fi be Element of TOP-REAL i,fj be Element of TOP-REAL j
holds f.(fi,fj) = fi^fj
for r for fi be Point of Euclid i,fj be Point of Euclid j,
fij be Point of Euclid(i+j) st fij = fi^fj
holds f.:[:OpenHypercube(fi,r),OpenHypercube(fj,r):] = OpenHypercube(fij,r)
;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:21
A is bounded iff ex p be Point of Euclid n,r st A c= OpenHypercube(p,r);
registration
let n;
cluster closed bounded -> compact for Subset of TOP-REAL n;
end;
registration
let n;
let A be affinely-independent Subset of TOP-REAL n;
cluster conv A -> compact;
end;
begin :: Main Theorems
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:22
for A be non empty affinely-independent Subset of TOP-REAL n
for E be Enumeration of A
for F be FinSequence of bool the carrier of ((TOP-REAL n)|(conv A)) st
len F = card A & rng F is closed &
for S be Subset of dom F holds conv(E.:S) c= union(F.:S)
holds meet rng F is non empty;
reserve A for affinely-independent Subset of TOP-REAL n;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:23
for A st card A = n+1
for f be continuous Function of(TOP-REAL n)|conv A,(TOP-REAL n)|conv A
ex p be Point of TOP-REAL n st p in dom f & f.p=p;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:24
for A st card A = n+1
for f be continuous Function of (TOP-REAL n)|conv A,(TOP-REAL n)|conv A
holds f is with_fixpoint;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:25
card A = n+1 implies ind conv A = n;
theorem :: SIMPLEX2:26
ind TOP-REAL n = n;