:: On Ordering of Bags
:: by Gilbert Lee and Piotr Rudnicki
::
:: Received March 12, 2002
:: Copyright (c) 2002-2018 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies NUMBERS, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, FINSEQ_1, ARYTM_1, ARYTM_3,
XXREAL_0, CARD_1, NAT_1, PRE_POLY, FUNCT_1, RELAT_1, TARSKI, CLASSES1,
CARD_3, FINSEQ_2, PBOOLE, GRAPH_2, VALUED_0, FINSUB_1, FINSET_1, RELAT_2,
ORDERS_2, WAYBEL_4, STRUCT_0, WELLFND1, WELLORD1, ORDERS_1, ORDINAL1,
WELLORD2, ORDINAL4, REAL_1, FUNCOP_1, FUNCT_4, PARTFUN1, DICKSON,
RLVECT_2, ZFMISC_1, MCART_1, BAGORDER, XCMPLX_0;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, XCMPLX_0, RELAT_1, PBOOLE,
RELAT_2, RELSET_1, PARTFUN1, FINSET_1, FINSUB_1, ORDINAL1, FUNCT_7,
XTUPLE_0, MCART_1, WELLORD1, ORDERS_1, WELLFND1, CARD_1, NUMBERS,
VALUED_0, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, FUNCT_1, PRE_POLY, CARD_3, NAT_D, FINSEQ_1,
FINSEQ_2, RVSUM_1, WSIERP_1, FUNCOP_1, FUNCT_2, SEQ_4, DOMAIN_1,
FINSEQOP, CLASSES1, RECDEF_1, NAT_1, STRUCT_0, WAYBEL_0, YELLOW_1,
WAYBEL_4, PRALG_1, ORDERS_2, DICKSON;
constructors DOMAIN_1, FINSEQOP, NAT_D, WSIERP_1, PRALG_1, TRIANG_1, WAYBEL_4,
WELLFND1, DICKSON, RECDEF_1, BINOP_2, SEQ_4, CLASSES1, RELSET_1, FUNCT_7,
REAL_1, XTUPLE_0, WELLORD1, PRE_POLY, NUMBERS;
registrations XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1, FUNCT_2,
FINSET_1, FINSUB_1, NUMBERS, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, NAT_1, CARD_1, MEMBERED,
FINSEQ_1, CARD_5, STRUCT_0, ORDERS_2, WAYBEL_0, YELLOW_1, DICKSON,
VALUED_0, XXREAL_2, RELSET_1, PRE_POLY, WELLORD1, WELLORD2, XTUPLE_0;
requirements SUBSET, NUMERALS, REAL, BOOLE, ARITHM;
definitions TARSKI, RELAT_2, WELLFND1;
equalities FINSEQ_2, CARD_1, ORDINAL1;
expansions TARSKI, RELAT_2, WELLFND1;
theorems WELLORD1, TARSKI, RELAT_2, RELSET_1, ZFMISC_1, ORDERS_2, NAT_1,
FUNCT_1, AXIOMS, CARD_3, PBOOLE, YELLOW_1, PRALG_1, FUNCOP_1, PARTIT_2,
WELLFND1, RELAT_1, DICKSON, FINSEQ_1, INTEGRA5, RVSUM_1, FINSEQ_2,
CARD_1, WAYBEL_0, WAYBEL_4, ORDINAL1, FUNCT_2, CARD_2, FINSUB_1,
ORDERS_1, FUNCT_7, WELLORD2, FINSEQ_3, FINSEQ_5, FINSEQOP, RFINSEQ,
XBOOLE_0, XBOOLE_1, PARTFUN1, XREAL_1, XXREAL_0, VALUED_0, VALUED_1,
XXREAL_2, XREAL_0, NAT_D, CLASSES1, PRE_POLY, XTUPLE_0, NUMBERS;
schemes NAT_1, RELSET_1, FINSET_1, RECDEF_1, FUNCT_2, ORDINAL1, CLASSES1;
begin :: Preliminaries
theorem Th1:
for x,y,z being set st z in x & z in y holds x \ {z} = y \ {z} implies x = y
proof
let x,y,z be set;
assume that
A1: z in x and
A2: z in y;
assume
A3: x \ {z} = y \ {z};
thus x = x \/ {z} by A1,ZFMISC_1:40
.= (y \ {z}) \/ {z} by A3,XBOOLE_1:39
.= y \/ {z} by XBOOLE_1:39
.= y by A2,ZFMISC_1:40;
end;
theorem
for n, k being Element of NAT holds k in Seg n
iff k-1 is Element of NAT & k-1 < n
proof
let n, k be Element of NAT;
A1: Seg n = {x where x is Nat : 1 <= x & x <= n} by FINSEQ_1:def 1;
hereby
assume k in Seg n;
then consider x being Nat such that
A2: k = x and
A3: 1 <= x and
A4: x <= n by A1;
set x1 = k - 1, n1 = n-1;
0 < x by A3;
then reconsider x1 as Element of NAT by A2,NAT_1:20;
x1 = k-1;
hence k-1 is Element of NAT;
0 < n by A3,A4;
then reconsider n1 as Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
k+(-1) <= n+(-1) by A2,A4,XREAL_1:6;
then x1 <= n1;
then k-1 < n1+1 by NAT_1:13;
hence k-1 < n;
end;
assume that
A5: k-1 is Element of NAT and
A6: k-1 < n;
reconsider k1 = k-1 as Element of NAT by A5;
0 <= k1;
then
A7: 0 qua Nat+1 <= k-1+1 by XREAL_1:6;
k-1+1 <= n-1+1 by A5,A6,NAT_1:13;
hence thesis by A1,A7;
end;
registration
let f be finite-support Function, X be set;
cluster f|X -> finite-support;
coherence
proof
support (f|X) c= support f
proof
let x be object;
assume
A1: x in support (f|X);
then
A2: (f|X).x <> 0 by PRE_POLY:def 7;
support (f|X) c= dom (f|X) by PRE_POLY:37;
then f.x <> 0 by A1,A2,FUNCT_1:47;
hence thesis by PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
hence thesis by PRE_POLY:def 8;
end;
end;
::$CT
theorem Th3:
for fs being FinSequence of NAT holds Sum fs = 0 iff fs = (len fs) |-> 0
proof
let fs be FinSequence of NAT;
hereby
assume
A1: Sum fs = 0;
A2: Seg len fs = dom fs by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
A3: Seg len fs = dom ((len fs) |-> 0) by FUNCOP_1:13;
now
let k be Nat such that
A4: k in Seg len fs;
now
assume
A5: fs.k <> 0;
for k being Nat st k in dom fs holds 0 <= fs.k;
hence contradiction by A1,A2,A4,A5,RVSUM_1:85;
end;
hence fs.k = ((len fs) |-> 0).k by A4,FUNCOP_1:7;
end;
hence fs = (len fs) |-> 0 by A2,A3,FINSEQ_1:13;
end;
assume fs = (len fs) |-> 0;
hence thesis by RVSUM_1:81;
end;
definition
let n,i,j be Nat, b be ManySortedSet of n;
func (i,j)-cut b -> ManySortedSet of j-'i means
:Def1:
for k being Element of NAT st k in j-'i holds it.k = b.(i+k);
existence
proof
defpred P[object,object] means
ex k1 being Element of NAT st k1 = $1 & $2 = b.(i+k1);
A1: for x being object st x in j-'i ex y being object st P[x,y]
proof
let x be object such that
A2: x in j-'i;
j-'i = {k where k is Nat : k < j-'i} by AXIOMS:4;
then ex k being Nat st ( x = k)&( k < j-'i) by A2;
then reconsider x9=x as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
consider y being set such that
A3: y = b.(i+x9);
take y;
thus P[x,y] by A3;
end;
consider f being Function such that
A4: dom f = j-'i and
A5: for k being object st k in j-'i holds P[k,f.k] from CLASSES1:sch 1(A1);
reconsider f as ManySortedSet of j-'i by A4,PARTFUN1:def 2,RELAT_1:def 18;
take f;
let k be Element of NAT;
assume k in j-'i;
then ex k9 being Element of NAT st ( k9 = k)&( f.k = b.(i+k9)) by A5;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be ManySortedSet of j-'i such that
A6: for k being Element of NAT st k in j-'i holds IT1.k = b.(i+k) and
A7: for k being Element of NAT st k in j-'i holds IT2.k = b.(i+k);
A8: j-'i = dom IT1 by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A9: j-'i = dom IT2 by PARTFUN1:def 2;
now
let x be object such that
A10: x in j-'i;
j-'i = {k where k is Nat : k < j-'i} by AXIOMS:4;
then ex k being Nat st ( x = k)&( k < j-'i) by A10;
then reconsider x9=x as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
IT1.x = b.(i+x9) by A6,A10;
hence IT1.x = IT2.x by A7,A10;
end;
hence IT1 = IT2 by A8,A9,FUNCT_1:2;
end;
end;
registration
let n,i,j be Nat, b be natural-valued ManySortedSet of n;
cluster (i,j)-cut b -> natural-valued;
coherence
proof
now
let y be object;
assume y in rng (i,j)-cut b;
then consider x being object such that
A1: x in dom ((i,j)-cut b) and
A2: ((i,j)-cut b).x = y by FUNCT_1:def 3;
A3: x in j-'i by A1;
j-'i = {k where k is Nat : k < j-'i} by AXIOMS:4;
then ex k being Nat st ( k = x)&( k < j-'i) by A3;
then reconsider x as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
y = b.(i+x) by A2,A3,Def1;
hence y in NAT;
end;
then rng (i,j)-cut b c= NAT;
hence thesis by VALUED_0:def 6;
end;
end;
registration
let n,i,j be Element of NAT, b be finite-support ManySortedSet of n;
cluster (i,j)-cut b -> finite-support;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th4:
for n,i being Nat, a,b being ManySortedSet of n holds
a = b iff (0,i+1)-cut a = (0,i+1)-cut b & (i+1,n)-cut a = (i+1,n)-cut b
proof
let n, i be Nat, a, b be ManySortedSet of n;
set CUTA1 = (0,i+1)-cut a, CUTA2 = (i+1,n)-cut a;
set CUTB1 = (0,i+1)-cut b, CUTB2 = (i+1,n)-cut b;
thus a = b implies CUTA1 = CUTB1 & CUTA2 = CUTB2;
assume that
A1: CUTA1 = CUTB1 and
A2: CUTA2 = CUTB2;
A3: now
let k be Element of NAT such that
A4: k in i+1;
(i+1)-'0 = i+1+(0 qua Nat)-'0;
then
A5: k in ((i+1)-'0) by A4,NAT_D:34;
then CUTB1.k = b.(0 qua Nat+k) by Def1;
hence a.k = b.k by A1,A5,Def1;
end;
A6: now
let x be Element of NAT such that
A7: x >= i+1 and
A8: x < n;
set k = x-'(i+1);
x - (i+1) >= (i+1) - (i+1) by A7,XREAL_1:9;
then
A9: k = x-(i+1) by XREAL_0:def 2;
n >= i+1 by A7,A8,XXREAL_0:2;
then n - (i+1) >= (i+1)-(i+1) by XREAL_1:9;
then
A10: (n-'(i+1)) = n - (i+1) by XREAL_0:def 2;
x-(i+1) < n - (i+1) by A8,XREAL_1:14;
then
A11: k in Segm(n-'(i+1)) by A9,A10,NAT_1:44;
then CUTB2.k = b.((i+1)+k) by Def1;
hence a.x = b.x by A2,A9,A11,Def1;
end;
now
let x9 be object such that
A12: x9 in n;
n = {k where k is Nat : k < n} by AXIOMS:4;
then
A13: ex k being Nat st ( k = x9)&( k < n) by A12;
then reconsider x = x9 as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
per cases;
suppose x in i+1;
hence a.x9 = b.x9 by A3;
end;
suppose not x in Segm(i+1);
then x >= i+1 by NAT_1:44;
hence a.x9 = b.x9 by A6,A13;
end;
end;
hence thesis by PBOOLE:3;
end;
definition
let x be non empty set, n be non zero Element of NAT;
func Fin (x,n) -> set equals
{y where y is Subset of x : y is finite & y is non empty & card y c= n};
coherence;
end;
registration
let x be non empty set, n be non zero Element of NAT;
cluster Fin (x,n) -> non empty;
coherence
proof
set y = the Element of x;
A1: 0 qua Nat+1 < n+1 by XREAL_1:8;
now per cases by ORDINAL1:16;
suppose 1 c= n;
hence card {y} c=n by CARD_1:30;
end;
suppose
A2: n in 1;
1 = {k where k is Nat : k < 1} by AXIOMS:4;
then ex k being Nat st ( k = n)&( k < 1) by A2;
hence card {y} c=n by A1,NAT_1:13;
end;
end;
then {y} in Fin (x,n);
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem Th5:
for R being antisymmetric transitive non empty RelStr,
X being finite Subset of R st X <> {} holds
ex x being Element of R st x in X & x is_maximal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R
proof
let R be antisymmetric transitive non empty RelStr, X be finite Subset of R;
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
A1: IR is_transitive_in CR by ORDERS_2:def 3;
A2: IR is_antisymmetric_in CR by ORDERS_2:def 4;
A3: X is finite;
defpred P[set] means (($1 <> {}) implies (ex x being Element of R
st x in $1 & x is_maximal_wrt $1, IR));
A4: P[{}];
now
let y,B be set such that
A5: y in X and B c= X and
A6: B <> {} implies ex x being Element of R st x in B & x is_maximal_wrt B, IR;
reconsider y9=y as Element of R by A5;
assume (B \/ {y}) <> {};
per cases;
suppose
A7: B = {};
take y9;
thus y9 in B \/ {y} by A7,TARSKI:def 1;
A8: y9 in (B \/ {y}) by A7,TARSKI:def 1;
not ex z being set st z in (B \/ {y9}) & z <> y9 & [y9,z] in IR by A7,
TARSKI:def 1;
hence y9 is_maximal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A8,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
suppose B <> {};
then consider x being Element of R such that
A9: x in B and
A10: x is_maximal_wrt B, IR by A6;
now per cases;
suppose
A11: [x,y] in IR;
take y9;
A12: y in {y} by TARSKI:def 1;
hence y9 in B \/ {y} by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
A13: now
given z being set such that
A14: z in (B \/ {y}) and
A15: z <> y and
A16: [y,z] in IR;
A17: y9 in CR;
z in CR by A16,ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A18: [x,z] in IR by A1,A11,A16,A17;
per cases by A14,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A19: z in B;
now per cases;
suppose
A20: z = x;
then x = y9 by A2,A11,A16;
hence contradiction by A15,A20;
end;
suppose z <> x;
hence contradiction by A10,A18,A19,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
end;
hence contradiction;
end;
suppose z in {y};
hence contradiction by A15,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
end;
y9 in B \/ {y} by A12,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence y9 is_maximal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A13,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
suppose
A21: [y,x] in IR;
take x;
thus x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
A22: now
assume ex z being set st z in B \/ {y} & z <> x & [x,z] in IR;
then consider z being set such that
A23: z in B \/ {y} and
A24: z <> x and
A25: [x,z] in IR;
per cases by A23,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose z in B;
hence contradiction by A10,A24,A25,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
suppose z in {y};
then
A26: z = y by TARSKI:def 1;
z in CR by A25,ZFMISC_1:87;
hence contradiction by A2,A21,A24,A25,A26;
end;
end;
x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence x is_maximal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A22,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
suppose
A27: not [x,y] in IR & not [y,x] in IR;
take x;
thus x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
A28: now
assume ex z being set st z in B \/ {y} & z <> x & [x,z] in IR;
then consider z being set such that
A29: z in B \/ {y} and
A30: z <> x and
A31: [x,z] in IR;
per cases by A29,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose z in B;
hence contradiction by A10,A30,A31,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
suppose z in {y};
hence contradiction by A27,A31,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
end;
x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence x is_maximal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A28,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
end;
hence ex x being Element of R
st x in (B \/ {y}) & x is_maximal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR;
end;
end;
then
A32: for y,B being set st y in X & B c= X & P[B] holds P[B \/ {y}];
thus P[X] from FINSET_1:sch 2(A3, A4, A32);
end;
theorem Th6:
for R being antisymmetric transitive non empty RelStr,
X being finite Subset of R st X <> {} holds
ex x being Element of R st x in X & x is_minimal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R
proof
let R be antisymmetric transitive non empty RelStr, X be finite Subset of R;
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
A1: IR is_transitive_in CR by ORDERS_2:def 3;
A2: IR is_antisymmetric_in CR by ORDERS_2:def 4;
A3: X is finite;
defpred P[set] means (($1 <> {}) implies (ex x being Element of R
st x in $1 & x is_minimal_wrt $1, IR));
A4: P[{}];
now
let y,B be set such that
A5: y in X and B c= X and
A6: B <> {} implies ex x being Element of R st x in B & x is_minimal_wrt B, IR;
reconsider y9=y as Element of R by A5;
assume (B \/ {y}) <> {};
per cases;
suppose
A7: B = {};
take y9;
thus y9 in B \/ {y} by A7,TARSKI:def 1;
A8: y9 in (B \/ {y}) by A7,TARSKI:def 1;
not ex z being set st z in (B \/ {y9}) & z <> y9 & [z,y9] in IR by A7,
TARSKI:def 1;
hence y9 is_minimal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A8,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
suppose B <> {};
then consider x being Element of R such that
A9: x in B and
A10: x is_minimal_wrt B, IR by A6;
now per cases;
suppose
A11: [y,x] in IR;
take y9;
A12: y in {y} by TARSKI:def 1;
hence y9 in B \/ {y} by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
A13: now
assume ex z being set st z in (B \/ {y}) & z <> y & [z,y] in IR;
then consider z being set such that
A14: z in (B \/ {y}) and
A15: z <> y and
A16: [z,y] in IR;
A17: y9 in CR;
z in CR by A16,ZFMISC_1:87;
then
A18: [z,x] in IR by A1,A11,A16,A17;
per cases by A14,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A19: z in B;
now per cases;
suppose
A20: z = x;
then x = y9 by A2,A11,A16;
hence contradiction by A15,A20;
end;
suppose z <> x;
hence contradiction by A10,A18,A19,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
end;
hence contradiction;
end;
suppose z in {y};
hence contradiction by A15,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
end;
y9 in B \/ {y} by A12,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence y9 is_minimal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A13,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
suppose
A21: [x,y] in IR;
take x;
thus x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
A22: now
assume ex z being set st z in B \/ {y} & z <> x & [z,x] in IR;
then consider z being set such that
A23: z in B \/ {y} and
A24: z <> x and
A25: [z,x] in IR;
per cases by A23,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose z in B;
hence contradiction by A10,A24,A25,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
suppose z in {y};
then
A26: z = y by TARSKI:def 1;
z in CR by A25,ZFMISC_1:87;
hence contradiction by A2,A21,A24,A25,A26;
end;
end;
x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence x is_minimal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A22,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
suppose
A27: not [x,y] in IR & not [y,x] in IR;
take x;
thus x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
A28: now
assume ex z being set st z in B \/ {y} & z <> x & [z,x] in IR;
then consider z being set such that
A29: z in B \/ {y} and
A30: z <> x and
A31: [z,x] in IR;
per cases by A29,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose z in B;
hence contradiction by A10,A30,A31,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
suppose z in {y};
hence contradiction by A27,A31,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
end;
x in (B \/ {y}) by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence x is_minimal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR by A28,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
end;
hence ex x being Element of R
st x in (B \/ {y}) & x is_minimal_wrt (B \/ {y}), IR;
end;
end;
then
A32: for y,B being set st y in X & B c= X & P[B] holds P[B \/ {y}];
thus P[X] from FINSET_1:sch 2(A3, A4, A32);
end;
theorem
for R being non empty antisymmetric transitive RelStr,
f being sequence of R st f is descending
holds for j, i being Nat st if.j & [f.j,f.i] in the InternalRel of R
proof
let R be non empty antisymmetric transitive RelStr,
f be sequence of R such that
A1: f is descending;
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
A2: IR is_transitive_in CR by ORDERS_2:def 3;
A3: IR is_antisymmetric_in CR by ORDERS_2:def 4;
defpred P[Nat] means (for i being Nat st i < $1
holds f.i <> f.$1 & [f.$1, f.i] in IR);
A4: P[ 0 ];
now
let j be Nat such that
A5: for i being Nat st i < j holds f.i <> f.j & [f.j, f.i] in IR;
let i be Nat such that
A6: i < j+1;
now per cases by XXREAL_0:1;
suppose i > j;
hence f.i <> f.(j+1) & [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR by A6,NAT_1:13;
end;
suppose i = j;
hence f.i <> f.(j+1) & [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR by A1;
end;
suppose i < j;
then
A7: [f.j, f.i] in IR by A5;
A8: f.(j+1)<>f.j by A1;
[f.(j+1), f.j] in IR by A1;
hence f.i <> f.(j+1) & [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR by A2,A3,A7,A8;
end;
end;
hence f.i <> f.(j+1) & [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR;
end;
then
A9: for j being Nat st P[j] holds P[j+1];
thus for j being Nat holds P[j] from NAT_1:sch 2(A4,A9);
end;
definition
let R be non empty RelStr, s be sequence of R;
attr s is non-increasing means
for i being Nat holds [s.(i+1),s.i] in the InternalRel of R;
end;
theorem Th8:
for R being non empty transitive RelStr, f being sequence of R
st f is non-increasing holds for j, i being Nat st i j;
hence [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR by A5,NAT_1:13;
end;
suppose i = j;
hence [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR by A1;
end;
suppose i < j;
then
A6: [f.j, f.i] in IR by A4;
[f.(j+1), f.j] in IR by A1;
hence [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR by A2,A6;
end;
end;
hence [f.(j+1), f.i] in IR;
end;
then
A7: for j being Nat st P[j] holds P[j+1];
thus for j being Nat holds P[j] from NAT_1:sch 2(A3,A7);
end;
theorem Th9:
for R being non empty transitive RelStr, s being sequence of R
st R is well_founded & s is non-increasing
holds ex p being Nat st for r being Nat st p <= r
holds s.p = s.r
proof
let R be non empty transitive RelStr, s be sequence of R such that
A1: R is well_founded and
A2: s is non-increasing;
set cr = the carrier of R, ir = the InternalRel of R;
A3: ir is_well_founded_in cr by A1;
A4: dom s = NAT by FUNCT_2:def 1;
rng s c= cr by RELAT_1:def 19;
then consider a being object such that
A5: a in rng s and
A6: ir-Seg(a) misses rng s by A3,WELLORD1:def 3;
A7: ir-Seg(a) /\ rng s = {} by A6,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
consider i being object such that
A8: i in dom s and
A9: s.i = a by A5,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider i as Nat by A8;
assume not thesis;
then consider r being Nat such that
A10: i <= r and
A11: s.i <> s.r;
i < r by A10,A11,XXREAL_0:1;
then [s.r,s.i] in ir by A2,Th8;
then
A12: s.r in ir-Seg(a) by A9,A11,WELLORD1:1;
reconsider r as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
s.r in rng s by A4,FUNCT_1:3;
hence contradiction by A7,A12,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
theorem Th10:
for X being set, a be Element of X, A being finite Subset of X,
R being Order of X st A = {a} & R linearly_orders A
holds SgmX (R, A) = <*a*>
proof
let X be set, a be Element of X, A be finite Subset of X,
R be Order of X such that
A1: A = {a} and
A2: R linearly_orders A;
A3: len SgmX (R, A) = card A by A2,PRE_POLY:11
.= 1 by A1,CARD_1:30;
rng SgmX (R, A) = A by A2,PRE_POLY:def 2;
hence thesis by A1,A3,FINSEQ_1:39;
end;
begin :: More about bags
definition
let n be Ordinal, b be bag of n;
func TotDegree b -> Nat means
:Def4:
ex f being FinSequence of NAT
st it = Sum f & f = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b);
existence
proof
set f = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b);
A1: dom b = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
rng b c= NAT by VALUED_0:def 6;
then reconsider bb = b as Function of n,NAT by A1,FUNCT_2:2;
bb = b;
then reconsider f as FinSequence of NAT by FINSEQ_2:32;
reconsider x = Sum f as Nat;
take x;
thus thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
end;
theorem Th11:
for n being Ordinal, b being bag of n, s being finite Subset of n,
f, g being FinSequence of NAT
st f = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) & g = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b \/ s)
holds Sum f = Sum g
proof
let n be Ordinal, b be bag of n, s be finite Subset of n,
f, g be FinSequence of NAT such that
A1: f = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) and
A2: g = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b \/ s);
set sb = support b;
set sbs = sb \/ s;
set sbs9b = sbs\sb;
set xsb = SgmX(RelIncl n, sb), xsbs = SgmX(RelIncl n, sbs);
set xsbs9b = SgmX(RelIncl n, sbs9b);
set xs = xsb^xsbs9b;
set h = b*xs;
A3: dom b = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A4: field(RelIncl n) = n by WELLORD2:def 1;
A5: RelIncl n is being_linear-order by ORDERS_1:19;
A6: RelIncl n linearly_orders n by A4,ORDERS_1:19,37;
A7: RelIncl n linearly_orders sbs by A4,A5,ORDERS_1:37,38;
A8: RelIncl n linearly_orders sb by A4,A5,ORDERS_1:37,38;
A9: RelIncl n linearly_orders sbs9b by A4,A5,ORDERS_1:37,38;
A10: rng xsbs = sbs by A7,PRE_POLY:def 2;
A11: rng xsb = sb by A8,PRE_POLY:def 2;
A12: rng xsbs9b = sbs9b by A9,PRE_POLY:def 2;
then
A13: rng xs = sb \/ sbs9b by A11,FINSEQ_1:31;
then reconsider h as FinSequence by A3,FINSEQ_1:16;
per cases;
suppose n = {};
hence thesis by A1,A2;
end;
suppose n <> {};
then reconsider n as non empty Ordinal;
reconsider xsb, xsbs9b as FinSequence of n;
rng b c= REAL;
then reconsider b as Function of n,REAL by A3,FUNCT_2:2;
rng h c= rng b by RELAT_1:26;
then rng h c= REAL by XBOOLE_1:1;
then reconsider h as FinSequence of REAL by FINSEQ_1:def 4;
reconsider gr = g as FinSequence of REAL by FINSEQ_2:24,NUMBERS:19;
A14: sb misses sbs9b by XBOOLE_1:79;
A15: sbs = sb \/ sb \/ s .= sb \/ sbs by XBOOLE_1:4
.= sb \/ sbs9b by XBOOLE_1:39;
len xs = len xsb + len xsbs9b by FINSEQ_1:22
.= card sb + len xsbs9b by A6,ORDERS_1:38,PRE_POLY:11
.= card sb + card sbs9b by A6,ORDERS_1:38,PRE_POLY:11
.= card sbs by A15,CARD_2:40,XBOOLE_1:79
.= len xsbs by A6,ORDERS_1:38,PRE_POLY:11;
then
A16: dom xsbs = dom xs by FINSEQ_3:29;
A17: xsbs is one-to-one by A6,ORDERS_1:38,PRE_POLY:10;
A18: rng xsb = sb by A8,PRE_POLY:def 2;
A19: rng xsbs9b = sbs9b by A9,PRE_POLY:def 2;
A20: xsb is one-to-one by A6,ORDERS_1:38,PRE_POLY:10;
xsbs9b is one-to-one by A6,ORDERS_1:38,PRE_POLY:10;
then xs is one-to-one by A14,A18,A19,A20,FINSEQ_3:91;
then
A21: gr,h are_fiberwise_equipotent
by A2,A3,A10,A13,A15,A16,A17,CLASSES1:83,RFINSEQ:26;
now
thus dom xsbs9b = dom (b*xsbs9b) by A3,A12,RELAT_1:27;
A22: dom xsbs9b = Seg len xsbs9b by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
hence dom xsbs9b = dom ((len xsbs9b) |-> 0) by FUNCOP_1:13;
let x be object;
assume
A23: x in dom xsbs9b;
then xsbs9b.x in rng xsbs9b by FUNCT_1:3;
then not xsbs9b.x in sb by A12,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then b.(xsbs9b.x) = 0 by PRE_POLY:def 7;
hence (b*xsbs9b).x = 0 by A23,FUNCT_1:13
.= ((len xsbs9b) |-> 0).x by A22,A23,FUNCOP_1:7;
end;
then
A24: b*xsbs9b = (len xsbs9b) |-> (0 qua Real) by FUNCT_1:2;
h = (b*xsb)^(b*xsbs9b) by FINSEQOP:9;
then Sum h = Sum (b*xsb) + Sum (b*xsbs9b) by RVSUM_1:75
.= Sum f + (0 qua Nat) by A1,A24,RVSUM_1:81;
hence thesis by A21,RFINSEQ:9;
end;
end;
theorem Th12:
for n being Ordinal, a, b being bag of n
holds TotDegree (a+b) = TotDegree a + TotDegree b
proof
let n be Ordinal, a, b be bag of n;
A1: field(RelIncl n) = n by WELLORD2:def 1;
A2: RelIncl n is being_linear-order by ORDERS_1:19;
consider fab being FinSequence of NAT such that
A3: TotDegree (a+b) = Sum fab and
A4: fab = (a+b)*SgmX(RelIncl n, support(a+b)) by Def4;
consider fa being FinSequence of NAT such that
A5: TotDegree a = Sum fa and
A6: fa = a*SgmX(RelIncl n, support a) by Def4;
consider fb being FinSequence of NAT such that
A7: TotDegree b = Sum fb and
A8: fb = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) by Def4;
reconsider fab9=fab as FinSequence of REAL by FINSEQ_2:24,NUMBERS:19;
set sasb = support a \/ support b;
reconsider sasb as finite Subset of n;
set s = SgmX(RelIncl n, sasb);
set fa9b = a*s, fb9a = b*s;
RelIncl n linearly_orders sasb by A1,A2,ORDERS_1:37,38;
then
A9: rng s = sasb by PRE_POLY:def 2;
A10: support (a+b) = sasb by PRE_POLY:38;
A11: dom a = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A12: dom b = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
then reconsider fa9b, fb9a as FinSequence by A9,A11,FINSEQ_1:16;
A13: rng fa9b c= rng a by RELAT_1:26;
A14: rng fb9a c= rng b by RELAT_1:26;
A15: rng fa9b c= NAT by VALUED_0:def 6;
A16: rng fb9a c= NAT by VALUED_0:def 6;
A17: rng fa9b c= REAL by A13,XBOOLE_1:1;
rng fb9a c= REAL by A14,XBOOLE_1:1;
then reconsider fa9b, fb9a as FinSequence of REAL by A17,FINSEQ_1:def 4;
reconsider fa9bn = fa9b, fb9an = fb9a as FinSequence of NAT
by A15,A16,FINSEQ_1:def 4;
set ln = len fab;
A18: dom (a+b) = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A19: Seg ln = dom fab by FINSEQ_1:def 3
.= dom s by A4,A9,A10,A18,RELAT_1:27;
then
A20: Seg ln = dom fa9b by A9,A11,RELAT_1:27;
A21: Seg ln = dom fb9a by A9,A12,A19,RELAT_1:27;
A22: Sum fa = Sum fa9bn by A6,Th11;
A23: Sum fb = Sum fb9an by A8,Th11;
A24: len fa9b = len fb9a by A20,A21,FINSEQ_3:29;
then
A25: len (fa9b+fb9a) = len fa9b by INTEGRA5:2;
then
A26: Seg ln = dom (fa9b+fb9a) by A20,FINSEQ_3:29;
reconsider fa9b9 = fa9b as natural-valued
ManySortedSet of Seg ln by A20,PARTFUN1:def 2,RELAT_1:def 18;
now
thus Seg ln = dom fab9 by FINSEQ_1:def 3;
thus Seg ln = dom (fa9b+fb9a) by A20,A25,FINSEQ_3:29;
let k be Nat such that
A27: k in Seg ln;
reconsider k1=k as Nat;
reconsider fa9bk = fa9b.k1, fb9ak = fb9a.k1 as Real;
thus fab9.k
= (a+b).(SgmX(RelIncl n, support(a+b)).k) by A4,A10,A19,A27,FUNCT_1:13
.= a.(SgmX(RelIncl n, support(a+b)).k) +
b.(SgmX(RelIncl n, support(a+b)).k) by PRE_POLY:def 5
.= fa9b9.k +
b.(SgmX(RelIncl n, support(a+b)).k) by A10,A19,A27,FUNCT_1:13
.= fa9bk+fb9ak by A10,A19,A27,FUNCT_1:13
.= (fa9b+fb9a).k by A26,A27,VALUED_1:def 1;
end;
then fab9 = fa9b + fb9a by FINSEQ_1:13;
hence thesis by A3,A5,A7,A22,A23,A24,INTEGRA5:2;
end;
theorem
for n be Ordinal, a,b being bag of n
st b divides a holds TotDegree(a-'b) = TotDegree(a) - TotDegree(b)
proof
let n be Ordinal, a, b be bag of n;
assume b divides a;
then
A1: a -' b + b = a by PRE_POLY:47;
TotDegree(a-'b+b) = TotDegree (a-'b) + TotDegree b by Th12;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Th14:
for n being Ordinal, b being bag of n holds TotDegree b = 0 iff b = EmptyBag n
proof
let n be Ordinal, b be bag of n;
A1: field(RelIncl n) = n by WELLORD2:def 1;
RelIncl n is being_linear-order by ORDERS_1:19;
then
A2: RelIncl n linearly_orders support b by A1,ORDERS_1:37,38;
A3: dom b = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
hereby
assume
A4: TotDegree b = 0;
consider f being FinSequence of NAT such that
A5: TotDegree b = Sum f and
A6: f = b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) by Def4;
A7: f = len f |-> 0 by A4,A5,Th3;
now
let z be object such that z in dom b and
A8: b.z <> 0;
A9: rng SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) = support b by A2,PRE_POLY:def 2;
z in support b by A8,PRE_POLY:def 7;
then consider x being object such that
A10: x in dom SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) and
A11: SgmX(RelIncl n, support b).x = z by A9,FUNCT_1:def 3;
x in dom f by A3,A6,A9,A10,RELAT_1:27;
then x in Seg len f by A7,FUNCOP_1:13;
then f.x = 0 by A7,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence contradiction by A6,A8,A10,A11,FUNCT_1:13;
end;
then b = n --> 0 by A3,FUNCOP_1:11;
hence b = EmptyBag n by PBOOLE:def 3;
end;
assume b = EmptyBag n;
then
A12: b = n --> 0 by PBOOLE:def 3;
A13: ex f being FinSequence of NAT st ( TotDegree b = Sum f)&( f
= b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b)) by Def4;
now
assume support b <> {};
then consider x being object such that
A14: x in support b by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
b.x = 0 by A12,A14,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence contradiction by A14,PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
then rng SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) = {} by A2,PRE_POLY:def 2;
then dom SgmX(RelIncl n, support b) = {} by RELAT_1:42;
then dom (b*SgmX(RelIncl n, support b)) = {} by RELAT_1:25,XBOOLE_1:3;
hence thesis by A13,RELAT_1:41,RVSUM_1:72;
end;
theorem Th15:
for i,j,n being Nat holds (i,j)-cut EmptyBag n = EmptyBag (j-'i)
proof
let i,j,n be Nat;
set CUT1 = (i,j)-cut EmptyBag n;
A1: dom CUT1 = j-'i by PARTFUN1:def 2;
now
let k be object;
per cases;
suppose
A2: k in dom CUT1;
j-'i = {x where x is Nat : x < j-'i} by AXIOMS:4;
then ex x being Nat st ( k = x)&( x < j-'i) by A1,A2;
then reconsider k9=k as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
CUT1.k = (EmptyBag n).(i+k9) by A2,Def1
.= 0 by PBOOLE:5;
hence CUT1.k <= (EmptyBag (j-'i)).k;
end;
suppose not k in dom CUT1;
hence CUT1.k <= (EmptyBag (j-'i)).k by FUNCT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
then CUT1 divides EmptyBag (j-'i) by PRE_POLY:def 11;
hence thesis by PRE_POLY:58;
end;
theorem Th16:
for i,j,n being Nat, a,b being bag of n
holds (i,j)-cut (a+b) = (i,j)-cut(a) + (i,j)-cut(b)
proof
let i,j,n be Nat, a,b be bag of n;
set CUTAB = (i,j)-cut(a+b), CUTA = (i,j)-cut(a), CUTB=(i,j)-cut(b);
now
let x be object such that
A1: x in j-'i;
j-'i = {k where k is Nat : k < j-'i } by AXIOMS:4;
then ex k being Nat st ( k = x)&( k < j-'i) by A1;
then reconsider x9 = x as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
CUTAB.x = (a+b).(i+x9) by A1,Def1;
then
A2: CUTAB.x = a.(i+x9) + b.(i+x9) by PRE_POLY:def 5;
A3: CUTA.x = a.(i+x9) by A1,Def1;
CUTB.x = b.(i+x9) by A1,Def1;
hence CUTAB.x = (CUTA + CUTB).x by A2,A3,PRE_POLY:def 5;
end;
hence thesis by PBOOLE:3;
end;
::$CT 2
theorem Th17:
for n, m being Ordinal, b being bag of n st m in n holds b|m is bag of m
proof
let n, m be Ordinal, b be bag of n;
assume m in n;
then
A1: m c= n by ORDINAL1:def 2;
dom b = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
then dom (b|m) = m by A1,RELAT_1:62;
hence thesis by PARTFUN1:def 2;
end;
theorem
for n being set, a, b being bag of n
st b divides a holds support b c= support a
proof
let n be set, a, b be bag of n such that
A1: b divides a;
let x be object;
assume x in support b;
then b.x <> 0 by PRE_POLY:def 7;
then a.x <> 0 by A1,PRE_POLY:def 11;
hence thesis by PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
begin :: Some Special Orders (Section 4.4)
definition
let n be set;
mode TermOrder of n is Order of Bags n;
end;
notation
let n be Ordinal;
synonym LexOrder n for BagOrder n;
end;
definition :: Definition 4.59 - admissible (specific for Bags)
let n be Ordinal, T be TermOrder of n;
attr T is admissible means :Def5:
T is_strongly_connected_in Bags n &
(for a being bag of n holds [EmptyBag n, a] in T) &
for a, b, c being bag of n st [a, b] in T holds [a+c, b+c] in T;
end;
theorem Th19: :: 4.61 i) Lexicographical order is admissible
for n being Ordinal holds LexOrder n is admissible
proof
let n be Ordinal;
now
let a,b be object such that
A1: a in Bags n and
A2: b in Bags n;
reconsider a9=a, b9=b as bag of n by A1,A2;
a9 <=' b9 or b9 <=' a9 by PRE_POLY:45;
hence [a,b] in BagOrder n or [b,a] in BagOrder n by PRE_POLY:def 14;
end;
hence LexOrder n is_strongly_connected_in Bags n;
now
let a be bag of n;
EmptyBag n <=' a by PRE_POLY:60;
hence [EmptyBag n, a] in BagOrder n by PRE_POLY:def 14;
end;
hence for a being bag of n holds [EmptyBag n, a] in LexOrder n;
now
let a,b,c be bag of n;
assume [a,b] in BagOrder n;
then
A3: a <=' b by PRE_POLY:def 14;
now per cases by A3,PRE_POLY:def 10;
suppose a < b;
then consider k being Ordinal such that
A4: a.k < b.k and
A5: for l being Ordinal st l in k holds a.l=b.l by PRE_POLY:def 9;
now
take k;
A6: (a+c).k = a.k+c.k by PRE_POLY:def 5;
(b+c).k = (b.k+c.k) by PRE_POLY:def 5;
hence (a+c).k < (b+c).k by A4,A6,XREAL_1:6;
let l be Ordinal such that
A7: l in k;
A8: (a+c).l = a.l+c.l by PRE_POLY:def 5;
(b+c).l = b.l+c.l by PRE_POLY:def 5;
hence (a+c).l = (b+c).l by A5,A7,A8;
end;
then a+c < b+c by PRE_POLY:def 9;
hence a+c <=' b+c by PRE_POLY:def 10;
end;
suppose a = b;
hence a+c <=' b+c;
end;
end;
hence [a+c, b+c] in BagOrder n by PRE_POLY:def 14;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let n be Ordinal;
cluster LexOrder n -> admissible;
coherence by Th19;
end;
registration
let n be Ordinal;
cluster admissible for TermOrder of n;
existence
proof LexOrder n is admissible;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem
for o being infinite Ordinal holds LexOrder o is non well-ordering
proof
let o be infinite Ordinal;
set R = LexOrder o;
set r = RelStr(# Bags o, R#);
set ir = the InternalRel of r, cr = the carrier of r;
assume R is well-ordering;
then
A1: R is well_founded;
cr = field ir by ORDERS_1:15;
then ir is_well_founded_in cr by A1,WELLORD1:3;
then
A2: r is well_founded;
defpred P[set,set] means $2 = (o-->0)+*($1,1);
A3: now
let n be Element of NAT;
set y = (o-->0)+*(n,1);
A4: dom (o-->0) = o by FUNCOP_1:13;
reconsider y as ManySortedSet of o;
A5: omega c= o by CARD_3:85;
now
let x be object;
hereby
assume x in {n};
then x = n by TARSKI:def 1;
hence y.x <> 0 by A4,A5,FUNCT_7:31;
end;
assume that
A6: y.x <> 0 and
A7: not x in {n};
x <> n by A7,TARSKI:def 1;
then
A8: y.x = (o-->0).x by FUNCT_7:32;
per cases;
suppose x in dom (o-->0);
hence contradiction by A6,A8,FUNCOP_1:7;
end;
suppose not x in dom (o-->0);
hence contradiction by A6,A8,FUNCT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
then support y = {n} by PRE_POLY:def 7;
then y is finite-support by PRE_POLY:def 8;
then reconsider y as Element of cr by PRE_POLY:def 12;
take y;
thus P[n,y];
end;
consider f being sequence of cr such that
A9: for n being Element of NAT holds P[n,f.n] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A3);
reconsider f as sequence of r;
f is descending
proof
let n be Nat;
reconsider n0=n as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
set fn1 = f.(n0+1), fn = f.n0;
A10: fn1 = (o-->0)+*((n+1),1) by A9;
A11: fn = (o-->0)+*(n,1) by A9;
reconsider fn1 as bag of o;
reconsider fn as bag of o;
A12: n0 in omega;
A13: omega c= o by CARD_3:85;
n <> n+1;
then
A14: fn1.n = (o-->0).n by A10,FUNCT_7:32
.= 0 by A12,A13,FUNCOP_1:7;
A15: dom (o-->0) = o by FUNCOP_1:13;
then
A16: fn.n = 1 by A11,A13,FUNCT_7:31;
now
let l be Ordinal;
assume
A17: l in n;
then
A18: l <> n;
n < n+1 by NAT_1:13;
then n in {i where i is Nat : i < n0+1};
then n in n+1 by AXIOMS:4;
then n c= n+1 by ORDINAL1:def 2;
then l in n+1 by A17;
then l <> n+1;
hence fn1.l = (o-->0).l by A10,FUNCT_7:32
.= fn.l by A11,A18,FUNCT_7:32;
end;
then
A19: fn1 < fn by A14,A16,PRE_POLY:def 9;
thus f.(n+1) <> f.n by A11,A13,A14,A15,FUNCT_7:31;
fn1 <=' fn by A19,PRE_POLY:def 10;
hence [f.(n+1), f.n] in ir by PRE_POLY:def 14;
end;
hence contradiction by A2,WELLFND1:14;
end;
definition
let n be Ordinal;
func InvLexOrder n -> TermOrder of n means
:Def6:
for p,q being bag of n holds [p,q] in it iff p = q or
ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k;
existence
proof
defpred P[object,object] means ($1 = $2 or
ex p,q being Element of Bags n st $1 = p & $2 = q &
ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k);
consider ILO being Relation of Bags n, Bags n such that
A1: for x, y being object holds [x,y] in ILO iff
x in Bags n & y in Bags n & P[x,y] from RELSET_1:sch 1;
A2: ILO is_reflexive_in Bags n
by A1;
A3: ILO is_antisymmetric_in Bags n
proof
let x,y be object;
assume that
x in Bags n and y in Bags n and
A4: [x,y] in ILO and
A5: [y,x] in ILO;
per cases;
suppose x = y;
hence thesis;
end;
suppose
A6: not x = y;
then consider p, q being Element of Bags n such that
A7: x = p and
A8: y = q and
A9: ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i & for k being Ordinal st i
in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k
by A1,A4;
ex q9,p9 being Element of Bags n st ( y = q9)&( x = p9)&(
ex i being Ordinal st i in n & q9.i< p9.i & for k being Ordinal st i in k & k
in n holds q9.k = p9.k) by A1,A5,A6;
then consider i being Ordinal such that
A10: i in n and
A11: q.i < p.i and
A12: for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds q.k = p.k by A7,A8;
consider j being Ordinal such that
A13: j in n and
A14: p.j < q.j and
A15: for k being Ordinal st j in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k by A9;
now per cases by ORDINAL1:14;
suppose i in j;
hence i = j by A12,A13,A14;
end;
suppose i = j;
hence i = j;
end;
suppose j in i;
hence i = j by A10,A11,A15;
end;
end;
hence thesis by A11,A14;
end;
end;
A16: ILO is_transitive_in Bags n
proof
let x, y, z be object such that x in Bags n and y in Bags n
and z in Bags n and
A17: [x,y] in ILO and
A18: [y,z] in ILO;
per cases;
suppose x = y;
hence thesis by A18;
end;
suppose x <> y;
then consider p,q being Element of Bags n such that
A19: x = p and
A20: y = q and
A21: ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i & for k being Ordinal st i
in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k
by A1,A17;
consider i being Ordinal such that
A22: i in n and
A23: p.i < q.i and
A24: for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k by A21;
now per cases;
suppose y = z;
hence thesis by A17;
end;
suppose y <> z;
then consider q9,r being Element of Bags n such that
A25: y = q9 and
A26: z = r and
A27: ex i being Ordinal st i in n & q9.i < r.i & for k being Ordinal st
i in k & k in n holds q9.k = r.k
by A1,A18;
consider j being Ordinal such that
A28: j in n and
A29: q9.j < r.j and
A30: for k being Ordinal st j in k & k in n holds q9.k = r.k by A27;
now per cases by ORDINAL1:14;
suppose
A31: i in j;
then
A32: p.j < r.j by A20,A24,A25,A28,A29;
now
let k be Ordinal such that
A33: j in k and
A34: k in n;
A35: q.k = r.k by A20,A25,A30,A33,A34;
i in k by A31,A33,ORDINAL1:10;
hence p.k = r.k by A24,A34,A35;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A19,A26,A28,A32;
end;
suppose
A36: i = j;
now
take p, r;
thus x = p & z = r by A19,A26;
take j;
thus j in n by A28;
thus p.j < r.j by A20,A23,A25,A29,A36,XXREAL_0:2;
now
let k be Ordinal such that
A37: j in k and
A38: k in n;
p.k = q.k by A24,A36,A37,A38;
hence p.k = r.k by A20,A25,A30,A37,A38;
end;
hence for k being Ordinal st j in k & k in n holds p.k = r.k;
end;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
suppose
A39: j in i;
then
A40: p.i < r.i by A20,A22,A23,A25,A30;
now
let k be Ordinal such that
A41: i in k and
A42: k in n;
A43: p.k = q.k by A24,A41,A42;
j in k by A39,A41,ORDINAL1:10;
hence p.k = r.k by A20,A25,A30,A42,A43;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A19,A22,A26,A40;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
A44: dom ILO = Bags n by A2,ORDERS_1:13;
field ILO = Bags n by A2,ORDERS_1:13;
then reconsider ILO as TermOrder of n
by A2,A3,A16,A44,PARTFUN1:def 2,RELAT_2:def 9,def 12,def 16;
take ILO;
let x, y be bag of n;
hereby
assume
A45: [x,y] in ILO;
now
assume x <> y;
then ex p,q being Element of Bags n st ( x = p)&( y = q)&( ex i
being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i & for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n
holds p.k = q.k) by A1,A45;
hence ex i being Ordinal st i in n & x.i < y.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds x.k = y.k;
end;
hence x = y or ex i being Ordinal st i in n & x.i < y.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds x.k = y.k;
end;
assume
A46: x = y or ex i being Ordinal st i in n & x.i < y.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds x.k = y.k;
A47: now
assume
A48: x <> y;
thus ex p,q being Element of Bags n st x = p & y = q &
ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k
proof
reconsider x9=x, y9=y as Element of Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
take x9, y9;
thus x = x9 & y = y9;
thus thesis by A46,A48;
end;
end;
x in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
hence thesis by A1,A47;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be TermOrder of n such that
A49: for p,q being bag of n holds [p,q] in IT1 iff
p = q or ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k and
A50: for p,q being bag of n holds [p,q] in IT2 iff
p = q or ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k;
now
let a, b be object;
hereby
assume
A51: [a,b] in IT1;
then consider p, q being object such that
A52: [a,b] = [p,q] and
A53: p in Bags n and
A54: q in Bags n by RELSET_1:2;
reconsider p, q as bag of n by A53,A54;
per cases;
suppose p = q;
hence [a,b] in IT2 by A50,A52;
end;
suppose p <> q;
then ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k by A49,A51,A52
;
hence [a,b] in IT2 by A50,A52;
end;
end;
assume
A55: [a,b] in IT2;
then consider p,q being object such that
A56: [a,b] = [p,q] and
A57: p in Bags n and
A58: q in Bags n by RELSET_1:2;
reconsider p, q as bag of n by A57,A58;
per cases;
suppose p = q;
hence [a,b] in IT1 by A49,A56;
end;
suppose p <> q;
then ex i being Ordinal st i in n & p.i < q.i &
for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds p.k = q.k by A50,A55,A56;
hence [a,b] in IT1 by A49,A56;
end;
end;
hence IT1 = IT2 by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
theorem Th21: :: Ex 4.61 ii
for n being Ordinal holds InvLexOrder n is admissible
proof
let n be Ordinal;
set ILO = InvLexOrder n;
now
let x, y be object such that
A1: x in Bags n and
A2: y in Bags n;
reconsider p=x,q=y as bag of n by A1,A2;
now
assume
A3: not [p,q] in ILO;
then
A4: p <> q by Def6;
set s = SgmX(RelIncl n, support p \/ support q);
A5: dom p = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A6: dom q = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A7: field(RelIncl n) = n by WELLORD2:def 1;
RelIncl n is being_linear-order by ORDERS_1:19;
then
A8: RelIncl n linearly_orders support p \/ support q by A7,ORDERS_1:37,38;
then
A9: rng s = support p \/ support q by PRE_POLY:def 2;
defpred P[Nat] means $1 in dom s & q.(s.$1) <> p.(s.$1);
A10: for k being Nat st P[k] holds k <= len s by FINSEQ_3:25;
A11: ex k being Nat st P[k]
proof
assume
A12: not thesis;
now
let x be object;
assume x in n;
per cases;
suppose p.x <> 0;
then x in support p by PRE_POLY:def 7;
then x in support p \/ support q by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then ex k being Nat st ( k in dom s)&( s.k = x) by A9,FINSEQ_2:10;
hence p.x = q.x by A12;
end;
suppose q.x <> 0;
then x in support q by PRE_POLY:def 7;
then x in support p \/ support q by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then ex k being Nat st ( k in dom s)&( s.k = x) by A9,FINSEQ_2:10;
hence p.x = q.x by A12;
end;
suppose p.x = 0 & q.x = 0;
hence p.x = q.x;
end;
end;
hence contradiction by A4,A5,A6,FUNCT_1:2;
end;
consider j being Nat such that
A13: P[j] and
A14: for k being Nat st P[k] holds k <= j from NAT_1:sch 6(A10,A11);
A15: s.j in rng s by A13,FUNCT_1:3;
then reconsider J = s.j as Ordinal by A9;
now
take J;
thus J in n by A9,A15;
A16: now
let k be Ordinal such that
A17: J in k and
A18: k in n and
A19: q.k <> p.k;
now
assume that
A20: not k in support p and
A21: not k in support q;
p.k = 0 by A20,PRE_POLY:def 7;
hence contradiction by A19,A21,PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
then k in support p \/ support q by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then consider m being Nat such that
A22: m in dom s and
A23: s.m = k by A9,FINSEQ_2:10;
A24: m <= j by A14,A19,A22,A23;
m <> j by A17,A23;
then m < j by A24,XXREAL_0:1;
then [s/.m,s/.j] in RelIncl n by A8,A13,A22,PRE_POLY:def 2;
then [s.m,s/.j] in RelIncl n by A22,PARTFUN1:def 6;
then [s.m,s.j] in RelIncl n by A13,PARTFUN1:def 6;
then s.m c= s.j by A9,A15,A18,A23,WELLORD2:def 1;
hence contradiction by A17,A23,ORDINAL1:5;
end;
then q.J <= p.J by A3,A9,A15,Def6;
hence q.J < p.J by A13,XXREAL_0:1;
thus for k being Ordinal st J in k & k in n holds q.k = p.k by A16;
end;
hence [q,p] in ILO by Def6;
end;
hence [x,y] in ILO or [y,x] in ILO;
end;
hence ILO is_strongly_connected_in Bags n;
now
let a be bag of n;
per cases;
suppose EmptyBag n = a;
hence [EmptyBag n, a] in ILO by Def6;
end;
suppose
A25: EmptyBag n <> a;
set s = SgmX(RelIncl n, support a);
A26: field(RelIncl n) = n by WELLORD2:def 1;
RelIncl n is being_linear-order by ORDERS_1:19;
then
A27: RelIncl n linearly_orders support a by A26,ORDERS_1:37,38;
then
A28: rng s = support a by PRE_POLY:def 2;
then rng s <> {} by A25,PRE_POLY:81;
then
A29: len s in dom s by FINSEQ_5:6,RELAT_1:38;
then
A30: s.len s in rng s by FUNCT_1:3;
then reconsider j = s.len s as Ordinal by A28;
now
take j;
thus j in n by A28,A30;
A31: a.j <> 0 by A28,A30,PRE_POLY:def 7;
(EmptyBag n).j = 0 by PBOOLE:5;
hence (EmptyBag n).j < a.j by A31;
let k be Ordinal such that
A32: j in k and
A33: k in n;
A34: j c= k by A32,ORDINAL1:def 2;
now
assume (EmptyBag n).k <> a.k;
then a.k <> 0 by PBOOLE:5;
then k in support a by PRE_POLY:def 7;
then consider i being Nat such that
A35: i in dom s and
A36: s.i = k by A28,FINSEQ_2:10;
A37: i <= len s by A35,FINSEQ_3:25;
per cases by A37,XXREAL_0:1;
suppose i = len s;
hence contradiction by A32,A36;
end;
suppose i < len s;
then [s/.i,s/.len s] in RelIncl n by A27,A29,A35,PRE_POLY:def 2;
then [s.i,s/.len s] in RelIncl n by A35,PARTFUN1:def 6;
then [s.i,s.len s] in RelIncl n by A29,PARTFUN1:def 6;
then k c= j by A28,A30,A33,A36,WELLORD2:def 1;
then j = k by A34,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
hence contradiction by A32;
end;
end;
hence (EmptyBag n).k = a.k;
end;
hence [EmptyBag n,a] in ILO by Def6;
end;
end;
hence for a being bag of n holds [EmptyBag n, a] in ILO;
now
let a,b,c be bag of n such that
A38: [a,b] in ILO;
per cases;
suppose
A39: a = b;
a+c in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
hence [a+c, b+c] in ILO by A39,ORDERS_1:3;
end;
suppose a <> b;
then consider i being Ordinal such that
A40: i in n and
A41: a.i < b.i and
A42: for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in n holds a.k = b.k by A38,Def6;
now
take i;
thus i in n by A40;
A43: (a+c).i = a.i+c.i by PRE_POLY:def 5;
(b+c).i = b.i+c.i by PRE_POLY:def 5;
hence (a+c).i < (b+c).i by A41,A43,XREAL_1:6;
let k be Ordinal such that
A44: i in k and
A45: k in n;
A46: (a+c).k = a.k+c.k by PRE_POLY:def 5;
(b+c).k = b.k + c.k by PRE_POLY:def 5;
hence (a+c).k = (b+c).k by A42,A44,A45,A46;
end;
hence [a+c, b+c] in ILO by Def6;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let n be Ordinal;
cluster InvLexOrder n -> admissible;
coherence by Th21;
end;
theorem Th22:
for o being Ordinal holds InvLexOrder o is well-ordering
proof
defpred P[Ordinal] means InvLexOrder $1 is well-ordering;
A1: now
let o be Ordinal such that
A2: for n being Ordinal st n in o holds P[n];
set ilo = InvLexOrder o;
A3: ilo is_strongly_connected_in Bags o by Def5;
then ilo is_reflexive_in Bags o;
then
A4: field(ilo) = Bags o by PARTIT_2:9;
A5: now
assume ilo is non well_founded;
then
A6: not ilo is_well_founded_in Bags o by A4,WELLORD1:3;
set R = RelStr(# Bags o, ilo #);
set ir = the InternalRel of R;
R is non well_founded by A6;
then consider f being sequence of R such that
A7: f is descending by WELLFND1:14;
reconsider a = f.0 as bag of o;
set s = SgmX(RelIncl o, support a);
A8: field(RelIncl o) = o by WELLORD2:def 1;
RelIncl o is being_linear-order by ORDERS_1:19;
then
A9: RelIncl o linearly_orders support a by A8,ORDERS_1:37,38;
then
A10: rng s = support a by PRE_POLY:def 2;
now
assume rng s = {};
then
A11: a = EmptyBag o by A10,PRE_POLY:81;
reconsider b = f.(0 qua Nat+1) as bag of o;
A12: b <> a by A7;
[b,a] in ir by A7;
then ex i being Ordinal st ( i in o)&( b.i < a.i)&( for k being
Ordinal st i in k & k in o holds b.k = a.k) by A12,Def6;
hence contradiction by A11,PBOOLE:5;
end;
then
A13: len s in dom s by FINSEQ_5:6,RELAT_1:38;
then
A14: s.len s in rng s by FUNCT_1:3;
then reconsider j = s.len s as Ordinal by A10;
defpred P[set,set] means ex b being bag of o st f.$1 = b & $2 = b.j;
A15: now
let x be Element of NAT;
reconsider b = f.x as bag of o;
take y = b.j;
thus P[x,y];
end;
consider t being sequence of NAT such that
A16: for i being Element of NAT holds P[i,t.i] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A15);
defpred P[Nat] means for i being Ordinal, b being bag of o
st j in i & i in o & f.$1 = b holds b.i = 0;
A17: P[ 0 ]
proof
let i be Ordinal, b be bag of o such that
A18: j in i and
A19: i in o and
A20: f.0 = b;
assume b.i <> 0;
then i in support a by A20,PRE_POLY:def 7;
then consider k being Nat such that
A21: k in dom s and
A22: s.k = i by A10,FINSEQ_2:10;
A23: k <= len s by A21,FINSEQ_3:25;
per cases by A23,XXREAL_0:1;
suppose k = len s;
hence contradiction by A18,A22;
end;
suppose k < len s;
then [s/.k,s/.len s] in RelIncl o by A9,A13,A21,PRE_POLY:def 2;
then [s.k,s/.len s] in RelIncl o by A21,PARTFUN1:def 6;
then [s.k,s.len s] in RelIncl o by A13,PARTFUN1:def 6;
then s.k c= s.len s by A10,A14,A19,A22,WELLORD2:def 1;
hence contradiction by A18,A22,ORDINAL1:5;
end;
end;
A24: for n being Nat st P[n] holds P[n+1]
proof
let n be Nat;
assume
A25: for i being Ordinal, b being bag of o
st j in i & i in o & f.n = b holds b.i = 0;
let i be Ordinal, b1 be bag of o such that
A26: j in i and
A27: i in o and
A28: f.(n+1) = b1;
reconsider b = f.n as bag of o;
A29: b.i = 0 by A25,A26,A27;
A30: b1<>b by A7,A28;
[b1,b] in ilo by A7,A28;
then consider i1 being Ordinal such that
A31: i1 in o and
A32: b1.i1 < b.i1 and
A33: for k being Ordinal st i1 in k & k in o holds b1.k = b.k by A30,Def6;
per cases by ORDINAL1:14;
suppose i1 in i;
hence thesis by A27,A29,A33;
end;
suppose i1 = i;
hence thesis by A25,A26,A27,A32;
end;
suppose
A34: i in i1;
assume b1.i <> 0;
j in i1 by A26,A34,ORDINAL1:10;
hence contradiction by A25,A31,A32;
end;
end;
A35: for n being Nat holds P[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A17,A24);
reconsider t as sequence of OrderedNAT by DICKSON:def 15;
A36: t is non-increasing
proof
let n be Nat;
reconsider n0=n as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
reconsider tn = t.n0, tn1 = t.(n0+1) as Nat;
reconsider fn = f.n0, fn1 = f.(n0+1) as bag of o;
A37: fn1 <> fn by A7;
[fn1, fn] in ilo by A7;
then consider i being Ordinal such that
A38: i in o and
A39: fn1.i < fn.i and
A40: for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in o holds fn1.k = fn.k by A37,Def6;
A41: ex bn being bag of o st ( fn = bn)&( tn = bn.j) by A16;
A42: ex bn1 being bag of o st ( fn1 = bn1)&( tn1 = bn1.j) by A16;
now
per cases by ORDINAL1:14;
suppose i = j;
hence tn1 <= tn by A39,A41,A42;
end;
suppose j in i;
hence tn1 <= tn by A35,A38,A39;
end;
suppose i in j;
hence tn1 <= tn by A10,A14,A40,A41,A42;
end;
end;
hence thesis by DICKSON:def 14,def 15;
end;
set n = j;
set iln = InvLexOrder n;
set S = RelStr(#Bags n, iln#);
iln is_strongly_connected_in Bags n by Def5;
then iln is_reflexive_in Bags n;
then
A43: field(iln) = Bags n by PARTIT_2:9;
consider p being Nat such that
A44: for r being Nat st p <= r holds t.p = t.r by A36,Th9;
defpred P[Nat,set] means
ex b being bag of o st b = f.(p+$1) & $2 = b|j;
A45: now
let x be Element of NAT;
reconsider b = f.(p+x) as bag of o;
reconsider y = b|j as bag of n by A10,A14,Th17;
reconsider y as Element of Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
take y;
thus P[x,y];
end;
consider g being sequence of Bags n such that
A46: for x being Element of NAT holds P[x,g.x] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A45);
reconsider g as sequence of S;
now
let k be Nat;
reconsider k0=k as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
consider b being bag of o such that
A47: b = f.(p+k) and
A48: g.k0 = b|j by A46;
consider b1 being bag of o such that
A49: b1 = f.(p+(k+1)) and
A50: g.(k+1) = b1|j by A46;
p+(k+1) = (p+k)+1;
then
A51: b <> b1 by A7,A47,A49;
A52: ex bb being bag of o st ( f.(p+k) = bb)&( t.(p+k0) = bb.j) by A16;
A53: ex bb1 being bag of o st ( f.(p+(k+1)) = bb1)&( t.(p+(k+1))
= bb1.j) by A16;
A54: t.(p+k) = t.p by A44,NAT_1:11;
thus g.(k+1) <> g.k
proof
assume
A55: not thesis;
A56: o = dom b by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A57: o = dom b1 by PARTFUN1:def 2;
now
let m be object such that
A58: m in o;
reconsider mm=m as set by TARSKI:1;
per cases by A58,ORDINAL1:14;
suppose
A59: m in j;
then (b|j).m = b.m by FUNCT_1:49;
hence b.m = b1.m by A48,A50,A55,A59,FUNCT_1:49;
end;
suppose m = j;
hence b.m = b1.m by A44,A47,A49,A52,A53,A54,NAT_1:11;
end;
suppose
A60: j in mm;
then b.m = 0 by A35,A47,A58;
hence b.m = b1.m by A35,A49,A58,A60;
end;
end;
hence contradiction by A51,A56,A57,FUNCT_1:2;
end;
[f.((p+k)+1), f.(p+k)] in ilo by A7;
then consider i being Ordinal such that
A61: i in o and
A62: b1.i < b.i and
A63: for k being Ordinal st i in k & k in o holds b.k = b1.k
by A47,A49,A51,Def6;
A64: now
assume
A65: not i in j;
per cases by A65,ORDINAL1:14;
suppose i = j;
hence contradiction by A44,A47,A49,A52,A53,A54,A62,NAT_1:11;
end;
suppose
A66: j in i;
then b.i = 0 by A35,A47,A61
.= b1.i by A35,A49,A61,A66;
hence contradiction by A62;
end;
end;
reconsider bj = b|j, b1j = b1|j as bag of n by A10,A14,Th17;
A67: b1j.i = b1.i by A64,FUNCT_1:49;
A68: bj.i = b.i by A64,FUNCT_1:49;
now
let k be Ordinal such that
A69: i in k and
A70: k in n;
k in o by A10,A14,A70,ORDINAL1:10;
then
A71: b.k = b1.k by A63,A69;
thus bj.k = b.k by A70,FUNCT_1:49
.= b1j.k by A70,A71,FUNCT_1:49;
end;
hence [g.(k+1), g.k] in iln by A48,A50,A62,A64,A67,A68,Def6;
end;
then g is descending;
then S is non well_founded by WELLFND1:14;
then not iln is_well_founded_in the carrier of S;
then not iln well_orders field iln by A43,WELLORD1:def 5;
then iln is non well-ordering by WELLORD1:4;
hence contradiction by A2,A10,A14;
end;
A72: field ilo = Bags o by ORDERS_1:12;
then
A73: ilo is_reflexive_in Bags o by RELAT_2:def 9;
A74: ilo is_transitive_in Bags o by A72,RELAT_2:def 16;
A75: ilo is_antisymmetric_in Bags o by A72,RELAT_2:def 12;
A76: ilo is_connected_in field ilo by A3,A4;
ilo is_well_founded_in field ilo by A5,WELLORD1:3;
then ilo well_orders field ilo by A4,A73,A74,A75,A76,WELLORD1:def 5;
hence P[o] by WELLORD1:4;
end;
thus for o being Ordinal holds P[o] from ORDINAL1:sch 2(A1);
end;
definition
let n be Ordinal, o be TermOrder of n such that
A1: for a,b,c being bag of n st [a,b] in o holds [a+c, b+c] in o;
func Graded o -> TermOrder of n means
: Def7:
for a, b being bag of n holds [a,b] in it iff
( TotDegree a < TotDegree b or TotDegree a = TotDegree b & [a,b] in o );
existence
proof
defpred P[object,object] means
(ex x9, y9 being bag of n st x9=$1 & y9=$2 &
((TotDegree x9 < TotDegree y9) or
(TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o)));
consider R being Relation of Bags n such that
A2: for x,y being object
holds [x,y] in R iff x in Bags n & y in Bags n & P[x,y]
from RELSET_1:sch 1;
A3: now
let x be object such that
A4: x in Bags n;
reconsider x9=x as bag of n by A4;
now
take x9;
thus x9=x;
thus TotDegree x9 = TotDegree x9;
[EmptyBag n, EmptyBag n] in o by ORDERS_1:3;
then [(EmptyBag n) + x9, (EmptyBag n) + x9] in o by A1;
then [x9, (EmptyBag n) + x9] in o by PRE_POLY:53;
hence [x9,x9] in o by PRE_POLY:53;
end;
hence [x,x] in R by A2,A4;
end;
A5: now
let x, y be object such that
A6: x in Bags n and
A7: y in Bags n and
A8: [x,y] in R and
A9: [y,x] in R;
consider x9, y9 being bag of n such that
A10: x9=x and
A11: y9=y and
A12: TotDegree x9 < TotDegree y9 or
TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o by A2,A8;
A13: ex y99, x99 being bag of n st ( y99=y)&( x99= x)&(
TotDegree y99 < TotDegree x99 or TotDegree y99 = TotDegree x99 & [y99,x99] in o
) by A2,A9;
now per cases by A12;
suppose
A14: TotDegree x9 < TotDegree y9;
now per cases by A10,A11,A13;
suppose TotDegree y9 < TotDegree x9;
hence contradiction by A14;
end;
suppose TotDegree y9 = TotDegree x9 & [y9,x9] in o;
hence contradiction by A14;
end;
end;
hence TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o &
TotDegree y9 = TotDegree x9 & [y9,x9] in o;
end;
suppose
A15: TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o;
now per cases by A10,A11,A13;
suppose TotDegree y9 < TotDegree x9;
hence TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o &
TotDegree y9 = TotDegree x9 & [y9,x9] in o by A15;
end;
suppose TotDegree y9 = TotDegree x9 & [y9,x9] in o;
hence TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o &
TotDegree y9 = TotDegree x9 & [y9,x9] in o by A15;
end;
end;
hence TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o &
TotDegree y9 = TotDegree x9 & [y9,x9] in o;
end;
end;
hence x = y by A6,A7,A10,A11,ORDERS_1:4;
end;
A16: now
let x,y,z be object such that
A17: x in Bags n and
A18: y in Bags n and
A19: z in Bags n and
A20: [x,y] in R and
A21: [y,z] in R;
consider x9,y9 being bag of n such that
A22: x9=x and
A23: y9=y and
A24: TotDegree x9 < TotDegree y9 or TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,
y9] in o
by A2,A20;
consider y99,z9 being bag of n such that
A25: y99=y and
A26: z9=z and
A27: TotDegree y99 < TotDegree z9 or TotDegree y99 = TotDegree z9 & [
y99,z9] in o
by A2,A21;
per cases by A24;
suppose
A28: TotDegree x9 < TotDegree y9;
now per cases by A23,A25,A27;
suppose TotDegree y9 < TotDegree z9;
then TotDegree x9 < TotDegree z9 by A28,XXREAL_0:2;
hence [x,z] in R by A2,A17,A19,A22,A26;
end;
suppose TotDegree y9 = TotDegree z9 & [y9, z9] in o;
hence [x,z] in R by A2,A17,A19,A22,A26,A28;
end;
end;
hence [x,z] in R;
end;
suppose
A29: TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o;
now per cases by A23,A25,A27;
suppose TotDegree y9 < TotDegree z9;
hence [x,z] in R by A2,A17,A19,A22,A26,A29;
end;
suppose TotDegree y9=TotDegree z9 & [y9, z9] in o;
then [x9,z9] in o by A17,A18,A19,A22,A23,A26,A29,ORDERS_1:5;
hence [x,z] in R by A2,A17,A19,A22,A23,A25,A26,A27,A29;
end;
end;
hence [x,z] in R;
end;
end;
A30: R is_reflexive_in Bags n by A3;
A31: R is_antisymmetric_in Bags n by A5;
A32: R is_transitive_in Bags n by A16;
A33: dom R = Bags n by A30,ORDERS_1:13;
field R = Bags n by A30,ORDERS_1:13;
then reconsider R as TermOrder of n by A30,A31,A32,A33,PARTFUN1:def 2
,RELAT_2:def 9,def 12,def 16;
take R;
let a,b be bag of n;
hereby
assume [a,b] in R;
then ex x9, y9 being bag of n st ( x9=a)&( y9=b)&( TotDegree x9
< TotDegree y9 or TotDegree x9 = TotDegree y9 & [x9,y9] in o) by A2;
hence TotDegree a < TotDegree b or
TotDegree a = TotDegree b & [a,b] in o;
end;
assume
A34: TotDegree a < TotDegree b or TotDegree a = TotDegree b & [a,b] in o;
A35: a in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
b in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
hence thesis by A2,A34,A35;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be TermOrder of n such that
A36: for a,b being bag of n holds [a,b] in IT1 iff
( TotDegree a < TotDegree b or
TotDegree a = TotDegree b & [a,b] in o ) and
A37: for a,b being bag of n holds [a,b] in IT2 iff
( TotDegree a < TotDegree b or TotDegree a = TotDegree b & [a,b] in o );
now
let a, b be object;
hereby
assume
A38: [a,b] in IT1;
then
A39: a in dom IT1 by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
b in rng IT1 by A38,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
then reconsider a9=a, b9=b as bag of n by A39;
TotDegree a9 < TotDegree b9 or
TotDegree a9 = TotDegree b9 & [a9,b9] in o by A36,A38;
hence [a,b] in IT2 by A37;
end;
assume
A40: [a,b] in IT2;
then
A41: a in dom IT2 by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
b in rng IT2 by A40,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
then reconsider a9=a, b9=b as bag of n by A41;
TotDegree a9 < TotDegree b9 or
TotDegree a9 = TotDegree b9 & [a9,b9] in o by A37,A40;
hence [a,b] in IT1 by A36;
end;
hence IT1 = IT2 by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
theorem Th23: :: Exercise 4.61: iiia
for n being Ordinal, o being TermOrder of n
st (for a,b,c being bag of n st [a,b] in o
holds [a+c, b+c] in o) & o is_strongly_connected_in Bags n
holds Graded o is admissible
proof
let n be Ordinal, o be TermOrder of n such that
A1: for a,b,c being bag of n st [a,b] in o holds [a+c,b+c] in o and
A2: o is_strongly_connected_in Bags n;
now
let x,y be object such that
A3: x in Bags n and
A4: y in Bags n;
reconsider x9=x, y9=y as bag of n by A3,A4;
assume
A5: not [x,y] in Graded o;
then
A6: TotDegree x9 >= TotDegree y9 by A1,Def7;
per cases by A6,XXREAL_0:1;
suppose TotDegree y9 < TotDegree x9;
hence [y,x] in Graded o by A1,Def7;
end;
suppose
A7: TotDegree y9 = TotDegree x9;
then not [x,y] in o by A1,A5,Def7;
then [y,x] in o by A2,A3,A4;
hence [y,x] in Graded o by A1,A7,Def7;
end;
end;
hence Graded o is_strongly_connected_in Bags n;
now
let a be bag of n;
A8: TotDegree EmptyBag n = 0 by Th14;
per cases;
suppose a = EmptyBag n;
hence [EmptyBag n, a] in Graded o by ORDERS_1:3;
end;
suppose a <> EmptyBag n;
then TotDegree a <> 0 by Th14;
hence [EmptyBag n, a] in Graded o by A1,A8,Def7;
end;
end;
hence for a being bag of n holds [EmptyBag n, a] in Graded o;
now
let a, b, c be bag of n such that
A9: [a,b] in Graded o;
per cases by A1,A9,Def7;
suppose
A10: TotDegree a < TotDegree b;
A11: TotDegree (a+c) = TotDegree a + TotDegree c by Th12;
TotDegree (b+c) = TotDegree b + TotDegree c by Th12;
then TotDegree (a+c) < TotDegree (b+c) by A10,A11,XREAL_1:8;
hence [a+c, b+c] in Graded o by A1,Def7;
end;
suppose
A12: TotDegree a = TotDegree b & [a,b] in o;
then TotDegree (a+c) = TotDegree b + TotDegree c by Th12;
then
A13: TotDegree (a+c) = TotDegree(b+c) by Th12;
[a+c, b+c] in o by A1,A12;
hence [a+c, b+c] in Graded o by A1,A13,Def7;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
definition
let n be Ordinal;
func GrLexOrder n -> TermOrder of n equals
Graded LexOrder n;
coherence;
func GrInvLexOrder n -> TermOrder of n equals :: Ex 4.61: iiic
Graded InvLexOrder n;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th24: :: Ex 4.61: iiib
for n being Ordinal holds GrLexOrder n is admissible
proof
let n be Ordinal;
A1: for a,b,c being bag of n st [a,b] in LexOrder n
holds [a+c,b+c] in LexOrder n by Def5;
LexOrder n is_strongly_connected_in Bags n by Def5;
hence thesis by A1,Th23;
end;
registration
let n be Ordinal;
cluster GrLexOrder n -> admissible;
coherence by Th24;
end;
theorem
for o being infinite Ordinal holds GrLexOrder o is non well-ordering
proof
let o be infinite Ordinal;
set R = GrLexOrder o;
set r = RelStr(# Bags o, R#);
set ir = the InternalRel of r, cr = the carrier of r;
assume R is well-ordering;
then
A1: R is well_founded;
cr = field ir by ORDERS_1:15;
then ir is_well_founded_in cr by A1,WELLORD1:3;
then
A2: r is well_founded;
defpred P[Nat, set] means $2 = (o-->0)+*($1,1);
A3: now
let n be Element of NAT;
set y = (o-->0)+*(n,1);
A4: dom (o-->0) = o by FUNCOP_1:13;
reconsider y as ManySortedSet of o;
A5: omega c= o by CARD_3:85;
now
let x be object;
hereby
assume x in {n};
then x = n by TARSKI:def 1;
hence y.x <> 0 by A4,A5,FUNCT_7:31;
end;
assume that
A6: y.x <> 0 and
A7: not x in {n};
x <> n by A7,TARSKI:def 1;
then
A8: y.x = (o-->0).x by FUNCT_7:32;
per cases;
suppose x in dom (o-->0);
hence contradiction by A6,A8,FUNCOP_1:7;
end;
suppose not x in dom (o-->0);
hence contradiction by A6,A8,FUNCT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
then support y = {n} by PRE_POLY:def 7;
then y is finite-support by PRE_POLY:def 8;
then reconsider y as Element of cr by PRE_POLY:def 12;
take y;
thus P[n,y];
end;
consider f being sequence of cr such that
A9: for n being Element of NAT holds P[n,f.n] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A3);
reconsider f as sequence of r;
f is descending
proof
let n be Nat;
reconsider n0=n as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
set fn1 = f.(n0+1), fn = f.n0;
A10: fn1 = (o-->0)+*((n+1),1) by A9;
A11: fn = (o-->0)+*(n,1) by A9;
reconsider fn1 as bag of o;
reconsider fn as bag of o;
A12: n0 in omega;
A13: omega c= o by CARD_3:85;
n <> n+1;
then
A14: fn1.n = (o-->0).n by A10,FUNCT_7:32
.= 0 by A12,A13,FUNCOP_1:7;
A15: dom (o-->0) = o by FUNCOP_1:13;
then
A16: fn.n = 1 by A11,A13,FUNCT_7:31;
now
let l be Ordinal;
assume
A17: l in n;
then
A18: l <> n;
n < n+1 by NAT_1:13;
then n in {i where i is Nat : i < n0+1};
then n in n+1 by AXIOMS:4;
then n c= n+1 by ORDINAL1:def 2;
then l in n+1 by A17;
then l <> n+1;
hence fn1.l = (o-->0).l by A10,FUNCT_7:32
.= fn.l by A11,A18,FUNCT_7:32;
end;
then
A19: fn1 < fn by A14,A16,PRE_POLY:def 9;
thus f.(n+1) <> f.n by A11,A13,A14,A15,FUNCT_7:31;
fn1 <=' fn by A19,PRE_POLY:def 10;
then
A20: [f.(n+1), f.n] in LexOrder o by PRE_POLY:def 14;
consider tn being FinSequence of NAT such that
A21: TotDegree fn = Sum tn and
A22: tn = fn*SgmX(RelIncl o, support fn) by Def4;
consider tn1 being FinSequence of NAT such that
A23: TotDegree fn1 = Sum tn1 and
A24: tn1 = fn1*SgmX(RelIncl o, support fn1) by Def4;
omega c= o by CARD_3:85;
then reconsider nn=n, n1n = n+1 as Element of o by A12;
A25: field(RelIncl o) = o by WELLORD2:def 1;
A26: RelIncl o linearly_orders o by A25,ORDERS_1:19,37;
now
let x be object;
hereby
assume
A27: x in support fn1;
now
assume x <> n1n;
then fn1.x = (o-->0).x by A10,FUNCT_7:32;
then fn1.x = 0 by A27,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence contradiction by A27,PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
hence x in {n1n} by TARSKI:def 1;
end;
assume x in {n1n};
then x = n1n by TARSKI:def 1;
then fn1.x = 1 by A10,A15,FUNCT_7:31;
hence x in support fn1 by PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
then support fn1 = {n1n} by TARSKI:2;
then
A28: SgmX(RelIncl o, support fn1) = <*n1n*> by A26,Th10,ORDERS_1:38;
A29: dom fn = o by A11,A15,FUNCT_7:30;
A30: dom fn1 = o by A10,A15,FUNCT_7:30;
now
let x be object;
hereby
assume
A31: x in support fn;
now
assume x <> nn;
then fn.x = (o-->0).x by A11,FUNCT_7:32;
then fn.x = 0 by A31,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence contradiction by A31,PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
hence x in {nn} by TARSKI:def 1;
end;
assume x in {nn};
then x = nn by TARSKI:def 1;
then fn.x = 1 by A11,A15,FUNCT_7:31;
hence x in support fn by PRE_POLY:def 7;
end;
then support fn = {nn} by TARSKI:2;
then SgmX(RelIncl o, support fn) = <*nn*> by A26,Th10,ORDERS_1:38;
then
A32: tn = <*fn.n*> by A22,A29,FINSEQ_2:34
.= <*1*> by A11,A13,A15,FUNCT_7:31
.= <*fn1.n1n*> by A10,A15,FUNCT_7:31
.= tn1 by A24,A28,A30,FINSEQ_2:34;
for a,b,c being bag of o st [a,b] in LexOrder o
holds [a+c, b+c] in LexOrder o by Def5;
hence [f.(n+1), f.n] in ir by A20,A21,A23,A32,Def7;
end;
hence contradiction by A2,WELLFND1:14;
end;
theorem Th26:
for n being Ordinal holds GrInvLexOrder n is admissible
proof
let n be Ordinal;
A1: for a,b,c being bag of n st [a,b] in InvLexOrder n
holds [a+c,b+c] in InvLexOrder n by Def5;
InvLexOrder n is_strongly_connected_in Bags n by Def5;
hence thesis by A1,Th23;
end;
registration
let n be Ordinal;
cluster GrInvLexOrder n -> admissible;
coherence by Th26;
end;
theorem
for o being Ordinal holds GrInvLexOrder o is well-ordering
proof
let o be Ordinal;
set gilo = GrInvLexOrder o, ilo = InvLexOrder o;
A1: gilo is_strongly_connected_in Bags o by Def5;
A2: field gilo = Bags o by ORDERS_1:12;
then
A3: gilo is_reflexive_in Bags o by RELAT_2:def 9;
A4: gilo is_transitive_in Bags o by A2,RELAT_2:def 16;
A5: gilo is_antisymmetric_in Bags o by A2,RELAT_2:def 12;
A6: gilo is_connected_in field gilo by A1,A2;
A7: for a,b,c being bag of o st [a,b] in ilo holds [a+c, b+c] in ilo by Def5;
now
let Y be set such that
A8: Y c= field gilo and
A9: Y <> {};
set TD = {TotDegree y where y is Element of Bags o : y in Y};
consider x being object such that
A10: x in Y by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 1;
reconsider x as Element of Bags o by A8,A10,ORDERS_1:12;
A11: TotDegree x in TD by A10;
TD c= NAT
proof
let x be object;
assume x in TD;
then ex y being Element of Bags o st ( x = TotDegree y)&( y in Y);
hence thesis by ORDINAL1:def 12;
end;
then reconsider TD as non empty Subset of NAT by A11;
set mTD ={y where y is Element of Bags o:y in Y & TotDegree y= min TD};
A12: mTD c= field(gilo)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in mTD;
then ex y being Element of Bags o st ( x = y)&( y in Y)&(
TotDegree y = min TD);
hence thesis by A2;
end;
min TD in TD by XXREAL_2:def 7;
then consider y being Element of Bags o such that
A13: TotDegree y = min TD and
A14: y in Y;
A15: y in mTD by A13,A14;
A16: field ilo = Bags o by ORDERS_1:12;
ilo is well-ordering by Th22;
then ilo well_orders field ilo by WELLORD1:4;
then ilo is_well_founded_in field ilo by WELLORD1:def 5;
then consider a being object such that
A17: a in mTD and
A18: ilo-Seg(a) misses mTD by A2,A12,A15,A16,WELLORD1:def 3;
A19: ilo-Seg(a) /\ mTD = {} by A18,XBOOLE_0:def 7;
A20: ex a9 being Element of Bags o st ( a9 = a)&( a9 in Y)&(
TotDegree a9 = min TD) by A17;
take a;
thus a in Y by A20;
now
assume gilo-Seg(a) /\ Y <> {};
then consider z being object such that
A21: z in gilo-Seg(a) /\ Y by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
A22: z in gilo-Seg(a) by A21,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
A23: z in Y by A21,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
A24: z <> a by A22,WELLORD1:1;
A25: [z,a] in gilo by A22,WELLORD1:1;
reconsider a, z as Element of Bags o by A8,A20,A23,ORDERS_1:12;
per cases by XXREAL_0:1;
suppose
A26: TotDegree z < TotDegree a;
TotDegree z in TD by A23;
hence contradiction by A20,A26,XXREAL_2:def 7;
end;
suppose
A27: TotDegree z = TotDegree a;
then [z,a] in ilo by A7,A25,Def7;
then
A28: z in ilo-Seg(a) by A24,WELLORD1:1;
z in mTD by A20,A23,A27;
hence contradiction by A19,A28,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
suppose TotDegree z > TotDegree a;
hence contradiction by A7,A25,Def7;
end;
end;
hence gilo-Seg(a) misses Y by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
end;
then gilo is_well_founded_in field gilo by WELLORD1:def 3;
then gilo well_orders field gilo by A2,A3,A4,A5,A6,WELLORD1:def 5;
hence thesis by WELLORD1:4;
end;
definition
let i,n be Nat, o1 be TermOrder of (i+1),
o2 be TermOrder of (n-'(i+1));
func BlockOrder(i,n,o1,o2) -> TermOrder of n means
:Def10:
for p,q being bag of n holds [p,q] in it iff
(0,i+1)-cut p <> (0,i+1)-cut q & [(0,i+1)-cut p,(0,i+1)-cut q] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut p = (0,i+1)-cut q & [(i+1,n)-cut p,(i+1,n)-cut q] in o2;
existence
proof
A1: i+1 = (i+1)-'0 by NAT_D:40;
defpred P[object,object] means
(ex p,q being bag of n st $1 = p & $2 = q &
(((0,i+1)-cut p <> (0,i+1)-cut q & [(0,i+1)-cut p, (0,i+1)-cut q] in o1) or
((0,i+1)-cut p = (0, i+1)-cut q & [(i+1, n)-cut p, (i+1, n)-cut q] in o2)));
consider BO being Relation of Bags n, Bags n such that
A2: for x, y being object holds [x,y] in BO iff
x in Bags n & y in Bags n & P[x,y] from RELSET_1:sch 1;
now
let x be object such that
A3: x in Bags n;
reconsider x9 = x as bag of n by A3;
A4: (0,i+1)-cut x9 = (0,i+1)-cut x9;
(i+1, n)-cut x9 in Bags (n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
then [(i+1, n)-cut x9, (i+1, n)-cut x9] in o2 by ORDERS_1:3;
hence [x,x] in BO by A2,A3,A4;
end;
then
A5: BO is_reflexive_in Bags n;
now
let x,y be object such that x in Bags n and y in Bags n and
A6: [x,y] in BO and
A7: [y,x] in BO;
consider p,q being bag of n such that
A8: x = p and
A9: y = q and
A10: (0,i+1)-cut p <> (0,i+1)-cut q & [(0,i+1)-cut p, (0,i+1)-cut q] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut p = (0,i+1)-cut q & [(i+1,n)-cut p, (i+1,n)-cut q] in o2
by A2,A6;
A11: ex q9,p9 being bag of n st ( y = q9)&( x = p9)&( (0,i+1)
-cut q9 <> (0,i+1)-cut p9 & [(0,i+1)-cut q9, (0,i+1)-cut p9] in o1 or (0,i+1)
-cut q9=(0,i+1)-cut p9 & [(i+1,n)-cut q9, (i+1,n)-cut p9] in o2) by A2,A7
;
set CUTP1 = (0,i+1)-cut p, CUTP2 = (i+1, n)-cut p;
set CUTQ1 = (0,i+1)-cut q, CUTQ2 = (i+1, n)-cut q;
A12: CUTP1 in Bags ((i+1)-'0) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A13: CUTQ1 in Bags ((i+1)-'0) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A14: CUTP2 in Bags (n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A15: CUTQ2 in Bags (n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
per cases by A10;
suppose
A16: CUTP1 <> CUTQ1 & [CUTP1, CUTQ1] in o1;
now per cases by A8,A9,A11;
suppose CUTQ1 <> CUTP1 & [CUTQ1,CUTP1] in o1;
hence x = y by A1,A12,A13,A16,ORDERS_1:4;
end;
suppose CUTQ1 = CUTP1 & [CUTQ2, CUTP2] in o2;
hence x = y by A16;
end;
end;
hence x = y;
end;
suppose
A17: CUTP1 = CUTQ1 & [CUTP2, CUTQ2] in o2;
now per cases by A8,A9,A11;
suppose CUTQ1 <> CUTP1 & [CUTQ1, CUTP1] in o1;
hence x = y by A17;
end;
suppose CUTQ1 = CUTP1 & [CUTQ2, CUTP2] in o2;
then CUTQ2 = CUTP2 by A14,A15,A17,ORDERS_1:4;
hence x = y by A8,A9,A17,Th4;
end;
end;
hence x = y;
end;
end;
then
A18: BO is_antisymmetric_in Bags n;
now
let x, y, z be object such that
A19: x in Bags n and y in Bags n and
A20: z in Bags n and
A21: [x,y] in BO and
A22: [y,z] in BO;
consider x9,y9 being bag of n such that
A23: x9=x and
A24: y9=y and
A25: (0,i+1)-cut x9 <> (0,i+1)-cut y9 &
[(0,i+1)-cut x9,(0,i+1)-cut y9] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut x9 = (0,i+1)-cut y9 &
[(i+1,n)-cut x9,(i+1,n)-cut y9] in o2 by A2,A21;
consider y99, z9 being bag of n such that
A26: y99=y and
A27: z9=z and
A28: (0,i+1)-cut y99 <> (0,i+1)-cut z9 &
[(0,i+1)-cut y99,(0,i+1)-cut z9] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut y99 = (0,i+1)-cut z9 &
[(i+1,n)-cut y99,(i+1,n)-cut z9] in o2 by A2,A22;
set CUTX1 = (0,i+1)-cut x9, CUTX2 = (i+1, n)-cut x9;
set CUTY1 = (0,i+1)-cut y9, CUTY2 = (i+1, n)-cut y9;
set CUTZ1 = (0,i+1)-cut z9, CUTZ2 = (i+1, n)-cut z9;
A29: CUTX1 in Bags ((i+1)-'0) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A30: CUTY1 in Bags ((i+1)-'0) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A31: CUTZ1 in Bags((i+1)-'0) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A32: CUTX2 in Bags (n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A33: CUTY2 in Bags (n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A34: CUTZ2 in Bags (n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
per cases by A25;
suppose
A35: CUTX1 <> CUTY1 & [CUTX1, CUTY1] in o1;
now per cases by A24,A26,A28;
suppose
A36: CUTY1 <> CUTZ1 & [CUTY1, CUTZ1] in o1;
then
A37: [CUTX1, CUTZ1] in o1 by A1,A29,A30,A31,A35,ORDERS_1:5;
now per cases;
suppose CUTX1 <> CUTZ1;
hence [x,z] in BO by A2,A19,A20,A23,A27,A37;
end;
suppose CUTX1 = CUTZ1;
hence [x,z] in BO by A1,A29,A30,A35,A36,ORDERS_1:4;
end;
end;
hence [x,z] in BO;
end;
suppose CUTY1 = CUTZ1 & [CUTY2, CUTZ2] in o2;
hence [x,z] in BO by A2,A19,A20,A23,A27,A35;
end;
end;
hence [x,z] in BO;
end;
suppose
A38: CUTX1 = CUTY1 & [CUTX2, CUTY2] in o2;
now per cases by A24,A26,A28;
suppose CUTY1 <> CUTZ1 & [CUTY1, CUTZ1] in o1;
hence [x,z] in BO by A2,A19,A20,A23,A27,A38;
end;
suppose
A39: CUTY1 = CUTZ1 & [CUTY2, CUTZ2] in o2;
then [CUTX2, CUTZ2] in o2 by A32,A33,A34,A38,ORDERS_1:5;
hence [x,z] in BO by A2,A19,A20,A23,A27,A38,A39;
end;
end;
hence [x,z] in BO;
end;
end;
then
A40: BO is_transitive_in Bags n;
A41: dom BO = Bags n by A5,ORDERS_1:13;
field BO = Bags n by A5,ORDERS_1:13;
then reconsider BO as TermOrder of n
by A5,A18,A40,A41,PARTFUN1:def 2,RELAT_2:def 9,def 12,def 16;
take BO;
let p,q be bag of n;
hereby
assume [p,q] in BO;
then ex p9,q9 being bag of n st ( p9=p)&( q9=q)&( (0,i+1)-cut p9
<> (0,i+1)-cut q9 & [(0,i+1)-cut p9,(0,i+1)-cut q9 ] in o1 or (0,i+1)-cut p9=(0
,i+1)-cut q9 & [(i+1, n)-cut p9, (i+1,n)-cut q9] in o2) by A2;
hence (0,i+1)-cut p <> (0,i+1)-cut q &
[(0,i+1)-cut p, (0,i+1)-cut q] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut p = (0,i+1)-cut q &
[(i+1, n)-cut p, (i+1,n)-cut q] in o2;
end;
assume that
A42: (0,i+1)-cut p <> (0,i+1)-cut q &
[(0,i+1)-cut p, (0,i+1)-cut q] in o1 or (0,i+1)-cut p = (0,i+1)-cut q &
[(i+1, n)-cut p, (i+1,n)-cut q] in o2;
A43: p in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
q in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
hence thesis by A2,A42,A43;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be TermOrder of n such that
A44: for p,q being bag of n holds [p,q] in IT1 iff
(0,i+1)-cut p <> (0, i+1)-cut q &[(0,i+1)-cut p, (0, i+1)-cut q] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut p=(0, i+1)-cut q & [(i+1, n)-cut p, (i+1, n)-cut q] in o2 and
A45: for p,q being bag of n holds [p,q] in IT2 iff
(0,i+1)-cut p <> (0, i+1)-cut q &[(0,i+1)-cut p, (0, i+1)-cut q] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut p=(0, i+1)-cut q & [(i+1, n)-cut p, (i+1, n)-cut q] in o2;
now
let a,b be object;
hereby
assume
A46: [a,b] in IT1;
then
A47: a in dom IT1 by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
b in rng IT1 by A46,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
then reconsider p=a, q= b as bag of n by A47;
(0,i+1)-cut p <> (0,i+1)-cut q &
[(0,i+1)-cut p, (0, i+1)-cut q] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut p=(0,i+1)-cut q & [(i+1,n)-cut p,(i+1,n)-cut q] in o2
by A44,A46;
hence [a,b] in IT2 by A45;
end;
assume
A48: [a,b] in IT2;
then
A49: a in dom IT2 by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
b in rng IT2 by A48,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
then reconsider p=a, q= b as bag of n by A49;
(0,i+1)-cut p <> (0,i+1)-cut q & [(0,i+1)-cut p, (0, i+1)-cut q] in o1 or
(0,i+1)-cut p=(0,i+1)-cut q & [(i+1,n)-cut p,(i+1,n)-cut q] in o2
by A45,A48;
hence [a,b] in IT1 by A44;
end;
hence IT1 = IT2 by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
theorem ::E_4_61_iv: :: Exercise 4.61: iv
for i,n being Nat, o1 being TermOrder of (i+1),
o2 being TermOrder of (n-'(i+1)) st o1 is admissible & o2 is admissible
holds BlockOrder(i,n,o1,o2) is admissible
proof
let i, n be Nat, o1 be TermOrder of (i+1),
o2 be TermOrder of (n-'(i+1)) such that
A1: o1 is admissible and
A2: o2 is admissible;
A3: i+1 = (i+1)-'0 by NAT_D:40;
then
A4: o1 is_strongly_connected_in Bags ((i+1)-'0) by A1;
A5: o2 is_strongly_connected_in Bags (n-'(i+1)) by A2;
set BO = BlockOrder(i,n,o1,o2);
now
now
let x,y be object such that
A6: x in Bags n and
A7: y in Bags n;
reconsider p=x, q=y as bag of n by A6,A7;
set CUTP1 = (0,i+1)-cut p, CUTP2 = (i+1, n)-cut p;
set CUTQ1 = (0,i+1)-cut q, CUTQ2 = (i+1, n)-cut q;
A8: CUTP1 in Bags((i+1)-'0) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A9: CUTQ1 in Bags((i+1)-'0) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A10: CUTP2 in Bags(n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
A11: CUTQ2 in Bags(n-'(i+1)) by PRE_POLY:def 12;
assume
A12: not [x,y] in BO;
per cases by A12,Def10;
suppose
A13: CUTP1 = CUTQ1;
now per cases by A12,Def10;
suppose CUTP1 <> CUTQ1;
hence [y,x] in BO by A13;
end;
suppose not [CUTP2, CUTQ2] in o2;
then [CUTQ2, CUTP2] in o2 by A5,A10,A11;
hence [y,x] in BO by A13,Def10;
end;
end;
hence [y,x] in BO;
end;
suppose not [CUTP1, CUTQ1] in o1;
then
A14: [CUTQ1, CUTP1] in o1 by A4,A8,A9;
now per cases by A12,Def10;
suppose CUTP1 <> CUTQ1;
hence [y,x] in BO by A14,Def10;
end;
suppose not [CUTP2, CUTQ2] in o2;
then
A15: [CUTQ2, CUTP2] in o2 by A5,A10,A11;
per cases;
suppose CUTP1 = CUTQ1;
hence [y,x] in BO by A15,Def10;
end;
suppose CUTP1 <> CUTQ1;
hence [y,x] in BO by A14,Def10;
end;
end;
end;
hence [y,x] in BO;
end;
end;
hence BO is_strongly_connected_in Bags n;
let a be bag of n;
set CUTE1 = (0, i+1)-cut EmptyBag n, CUTA1 = (0, i+1)-cut a;
set CUTE2 = (i+1, n)-cut EmptyBag n, CUTA2 = (i+1, n)-cut a;
now per cases;
suppose
A16: CUTE1 <> CUTA1;
CUTE1 = EmptyBag ((i+1)-'0) by Th15;
then [CUTE1, CUTA1] in o1 by A1,A3;
hence [EmptyBag n, a] in BO by A16,Def10;
end;
suppose
A17: CUTE1 = CUTA1;
CUTE2 = EmptyBag (n-'(i+1)) by Th15;
then [CUTE2, CUTA2] in o2 by A2;
hence [EmptyBag n, a] in BO by A17,Def10;
end;
end;
hence [EmptyBag n, a] in BO;
let a,b,c be bag of n such that
A18: [a,b] in BO;
set CUTA1 = (0, i+1)-cut a, CUTA2 = (i+1, n)-cut a;
set CUTB1 = (0, i+1)-cut b, CUTB2 = (i+1, n)-cut b;
set CUTC1 = (0, i+1)-cut c, CUTC2 = (i+1, n)-cut c;
set CUTAC1 = (0,i+1)-cut(a+c), CUTBC1 = (0,i+1)-cut(b+c);
set CUTAC2 = (i+1,n)-cut(a+c), CUTBC2 = (i+1,n)-cut(b+c);
per cases by A18,Def10;
suppose
A19: CUTA1 <> CUTB1 & [CUTA1, CUTB1] in o1;
then [CUTA1 + CUTC1, CUTB1+CUTC1] in o1 by A1,A3;
then [CUTAC1, CUTB1+CUTC1] in o1 by Th16;
then
A20: [CUTAC1, CUTBC1] in o1 by Th16;
now
assume
A21: CUTA1 + CUTC1 = CUTB1 + CUTC1;
CUTA1 + CUTC1 -' CUTC1 = CUTA1 by PRE_POLY:48;
hence contradiction by A19,A21,PRE_POLY:48;
end;
then CUTAC1 <> CUTB1 + CUTC1 by Th16;
then CUTAC1 <> CUTBC1 by Th16;
hence [a+c, b+c] in BO by A20,Def10;
end;
suppose
A22: CUTA1 = CUTB1 & [CUTA2, CUTB2] in o2;
then [CUTA2 + CUTC2, CUTB2 + CUTC2] in o2 by A2;
then [CUTAC2, CUTB2 + CUTC2] in o2 by Th16;
then
A23: [CUTAC2, CUTBC2] in o2 by Th16;
CUTAC1 = CUTB1 + CUTC1 by A22,Th16;
then CUTAC1 = CUTBC1 by Th16;
hence [a+c, b+c] in BO by A23,Def10;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
definition
let n be Nat;
func NaivelyOrderedBags n -> strict RelStr means
:Def11:
the carrier of it = Bags n &
for x,y being bag of n holds [x,y] in the InternalRel of it iff x divides y;
existence
proof
defpred P[object,object] means (ex x9,y9 being bag of n
st x9 = $1 & y9= $2 & x9 divides y9);
consider IR being Relation of Bags n, Bags n such that
A1: for x,y being object holds [x,y] in IR iff
x in Bags n & y in Bags n & P[x,y] from RELSET_1:sch 1;
set IT = RelStr(# Bags n, IR #);
reconsider IT as strict RelStr;
take IT;
thus the carrier of IT = Bags n;
let x,y be bag of n;
hereby
assume [x,y] in the InternalRel of IT;
then ex x9,y9 being bag of n st ( x9 = x)&( y9 = y)&( x9 divides
y9) by A1;
hence x divides y;
end;
assume
A2: x divides y;
A3: x in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
y in Bags n by PRE_POLY:def 12;
hence thesis by A1,A2,A3;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be strict RelStr such that
A4: the carrier of IT1 = Bags n and
A5: for x,y being bag of n holds [x,y] in the InternalRel of IT1 iff x
divides y and
A6: the carrier of IT2 = Bags n and
A7: for x,y being bag of n holds [x,y] in the InternalRel of IT2 iff x
divides y;
now
let a,b be object;
set z = [a,b];
hereby
assume
A8: z in the InternalRel of IT1;
then consider a9,b9 being object such that
A9: z = [a9,b9] and
A10: a9 in Bags n and
A11: b9 in Bags n by A4,RELSET_1:2;
reconsider a9, b9 as bag of n by A10,A11;
a9 divides b9 by A5,A8,A9;
hence [a,b] in the InternalRel of IT2 by A7,A9;
end;
assume
A12: [a,b] in the InternalRel of IT2;
set z = [a,b];
consider a9,b9 being object such that
A13: z = [a9,b9] and
A14: a9 in Bags n and
A15: b9 in Bags n by A6,A12,RELSET_1:2;
reconsider a9, b9 as bag of n by A14,A15;
a9 divides b9 by A7,A12,A13;
hence [a,b] in the InternalRel of IT1 by A5,A13;
end;
hence thesis by A4,A6,RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
theorem Th29:
for n being Nat holds the carrier of product(n --> OrderedNAT) = Bags n
proof
let n be Nat;
set X = the carrier of product(n-->OrderedNAT);
A1: X = product Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT) by YELLOW_1:def 4;
now
let x be object;
hereby
assume x in X;
then consider g being Function such that
A2: x = g and
A3: dom g = dom Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT) and
A4: for i being object st i in dom Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT)
holds g.i in Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT).i by A1,CARD_3:def 5;
A5: dom g = n by A3,PARTFUN1:def 2;
A6: rng g c= NAT
proof
let z be object;
assume z in rng g;
then consider y being object such that
A7: y in dom g and
A8: z = g.y by FUNCT_1:def 3;
A9: z in Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT).y by A3,A4,A7,A8;
ex R being 1-sorted st ( R = (n-->OrderedNAT).y)&( Carrier(
n-->OrderedNAT).y = the carrier of R) by A5,A7,PRALG_1:def 13;
hence thesis by A5,A7,A9,DICKSON:def 15,FUNCOP_1:7;
end;
A10: dom g = dom Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT) by A3
.= n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
A11: g is natural-valued by A6,VALUED_0:def 6;
g is ManySortedSet of n by A10,PARTFUN1:def 2,RELAT_1:def 18;
hence x in Bags n by A2,A11,PRE_POLY:def 12;
end;
assume x in Bags n;
then reconsider g = x as natural-valued finite-support ManySortedSet
of n;
A12: dom g = n by PARTFUN1:def 2;
now
take g;
thus x = g;
thus dom g = dom Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT) by A12,PARTFUN1:def 2;
let i be object;
assume i in dom (Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT));
then
A13: i in n;
reconsider ii=i as set by TARSKI:1;
consider R being 1-sorted such that
A14: R = (n-->OrderedNAT).ii and
A15: Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT).ii = the carrier of R by PRALG_1:def 13,A13;
R = OrderedNAT by A13,A14,FUNCOP_1:7
.= RelStr(# NAT, NATOrd #) by DICKSON:def 15;
then g.ii in Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT).ii by A15;
hence g.i in Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT).i;
end;
then x in product Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT) by CARD_3:def 5;
hence x in X by YELLOW_1:def 4;
end;
hence thesis by TARSKI:2;
end;
theorem Th30:
for n being Nat holds NaivelyOrderedBags n = product (n --> OrderedNAT)
proof
let n be Nat;
reconsider n0=n as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
set CNOB = the carrier of NaivelyOrderedBags n;
set IROB = the InternalRel of NaivelyOrderedBags n;
set CP = the carrier of product(n-->OrderedNAT);
set IP = the InternalRel of product (n-->OrderedNAT);
CNOB = Bags n by Def11;
then
A1: CNOB = CP by Th29;
now
let a,b be object;
hereby
assume
A2: [a,b] in IROB;
then
A3: a in dom IROB by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
A4: b in rng IROB by A2,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
A5: a in CNOB by A3;
A6: b in CNOB by A4;
A7: a in Bags n by A5,Def11;
A8: b in Bags n by A6,Def11;
then reconsider a9=a, b9=b as Element of CP by A7,Th29;
a9 in the carrier of product(n0-->OrderedNAT);
then
A9: a9 in product Carrier (n -->OrderedNAT) by YELLOW_1:def 4;
now
set f = a9, g = b9;
A10: a9 is bag of n by A7;
A11: b is bag of n by A8;
reconsider f, g as Function by A7,A8;
take f, g;
thus f = a9 & g = b9;
let i be object;
assume
A12: i in n;
set R = (n-->OrderedNAT).i;
A13: R = OrderedNAT by A12,FUNCOP_1:7;
reconsider R as RelStr by A12,FUNCOP_1:7;
take R;
set xi = f.i;
set yi = g.i;
dom f = n by A10,PARTFUN1:def 2;
then
A14: f.i in rng f by A12,FUNCT_1:3;
A15: rng f c= NAT by A10,VALUED_0:def 6;
dom g = n by A11,PARTFUN1:def 2;
then
A16: g.i in rng g by A12,FUNCT_1:3;
A17: rng g c= NAT by A11,VALUED_0:def 6;
then reconsider xi, yi as Element of R
by A12,A14,A15,A16,DICKSON:def 15,FUNCOP_1:7;
take xi, yi;
thus R = (n-->OrderedNAT).i & xi = f.i & yi = g.i;
reconsider a99=a9, b99=b9 as bag of n by A7,A8;
A18: xi in NAT & yi in NAT by A15,A17,A14,A16;
a99 divides b99 by A2,Def11;
then a99.i <= b99.i by PRE_POLY:def 11;
then [xi, yi] in NATOrd by DICKSON:def 14,A18;
hence xi <= yi by A13,DICKSON:def 15,ORDERS_2:def 5;
end;
then a9 <= b9 by A9,YELLOW_1:def 4;
hence [a,b] in IP by ORDERS_2:def 5;
end;
assume
A19: [a,b] in IP;
then
A20: a in dom IP by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
A21: b in rng IP by A19,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
A22: a in CP by A20;
A23: b in CP by A21;
A24: a in Bags n by A22,Th29;
b in Bags n by A23,Th29;
then reconsider a9=a, b9=b as bag of n by A24;
reconsider a2=a9,b2=b9 as Element of CP by A20,A21;
a2 in the carrier of product(n0-->OrderedNAT);
then
A25: a2 in product Carrier(n-->OrderedNAT) by YELLOW_1:def 4;
a2 <= b2 by A19,ORDERS_2:def 5;
then consider f,g being Function such that
A26: f = a2 and
A27: g = b2 and
A28: for i being object
st i in n ex R being RelStr, xi,yi being Element of R
st R = (n-->OrderedNAT).i & xi = f.i & yi = g.i & xi <= yi
by A25,YELLOW_1:def 4;
now
let k be object such that
A29: k in n;
consider R being RelStr, xi, yi being Element of R such that
A30: R = (n-->OrderedNAT).k and
A31: xi = f.k and
A32: yi = g.k and
A33: xi <= yi by A28,A29;
R = OrderedNAT by A29,A30,FUNCOP_1:7;
then [xi,yi] in NATOrd by A33,DICKSON:def 15,ORDERS_2:def 5;
then consider xii, yii being Element of NAT such that
A34: [xii,yii] = [xi,yi] and
A35: xii <= yii by DICKSON:def 14;
xii = xi by A34,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence a9.k <= b9.k by A26,A27,A31,A32,A34,A35,XTUPLE_0:1;
end;
then a9 divides b9 by PRE_POLY:46;
hence [a,b] in IROB by Def11;
end;
hence thesis by A1,RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
theorem ::T_4_62: :: Theorem 4.62
for n being Nat, o be TermOrder of n st o is admissible
holds the InternalRel of NaivelyOrderedBags n c= o & o is well-ordering
proof
let n be Nat, o be TermOrder of n such that
A1: o is admissible;
reconsider n0=n as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
set IRN = the InternalRel of NaivelyOrderedBags n;
now
let a,b be object such that
A2: [a,b] in IRN;
A3: a in dom IRN by A2,XTUPLE_0:def 12;
b in rng IRN by A2,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
then reconsider a1 = a, b1 = b as Element of Bags n by A3,Def11;
A4: a1 divides b1 by A2,Def11;
set l = b1 -' a1;
now
let i be object such that i in n;
A5: (l+a1).i = l.i+a1.i by PRE_POLY:def 5
.= b1.i -' a1.i + a1.i by PRE_POLY:def 6;
a1.i <= b1.i by A4,PRE_POLY:def 11;
then a1.i-a1.i <= b1.i-a1.i by XREAL_1:9;
hence (l+a1).i = (b1.i + (-a1.i)) + a1.i by A5,XREAL_0:def 2
.= b1.i;
end;
then
A6: l + a1 = b1 by PBOOLE:3;
[EmptyBag n, l] in o by A1;
then [(EmptyBag n)+a1, l+a1] in o by A1;
hence [a,b] in o by A6,PRE_POLY:53;
end;
hence
A7: the InternalRel of NaivelyOrderedBags n c= o by RELAT_1:def 3;
set R = product(n0 --> OrderedNAT), S = RelStr(# Bags n, o #);
A8: S is quasi_ordered by DICKSON:def 3;
A9: the InternalRel of R c= the InternalRel of S by A7,Th30;
the carrier of R = the carrier of S by Th29;
then
A10: S\~ is well_founded by A8,A9,DICKSON:49;
o is_strongly_connected_in Bags n by A1;
then
A11: o is_connected_in Bags n;
A12: field o = Bags n by ORDERS_1:12;
S is well_founded by A10,DICKSON:16;
then
A13: o is_well_founded_in field o by A12;
A14: o is connected by A11,A12;
o is well_founded by A13,WELLORD1:3;
hence thesis by A14;
end;
begin :: Ordering of finite subsets
definition
let R be connected non empty Poset,
X be Element of Fin the carrier of R such that
A1: X is non empty;
func PosetMin X -> Element of R means :: FPOSMIN :
it in X & it is_minimal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R;
existence
proof
set IR = the InternalRel of R;
X c= the carrier of R by FINSUB_1:def 5;
then consider x being Element of R such that
A2: x in X and
A3: x is_minimal_wrt X, IR by A1,Th6;
take x;
thus thesis by A2,A3;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be Element of R such that
A4: IT1 in X and
A5: IT1 is_minimal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R and
A6: IT2 in X and
A7: IT2 is_minimal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R;
set IR = the InternalRel of R;
A8: IT1 <= IT2 or IT2 <= IT1 by WAYBEL_0:def 29;
per cases by A8,ORDERS_2:def 5;
suppose [IT1, IT2] in IR;
hence thesis by A4,A7,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
suppose [IT2, IT1] in IR;
hence thesis by A5,A6,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
end;
func PosetMax X -> Element of R means
: Def13:
it in X & it is_maximal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R;
existence
proof
set IR = the InternalRel of R;
X c= the carrier of R by FINSUB_1:def 5;
then consider x being Element of R such that
A9: x in X and
A10: x is_maximal_wrt X, IR by A1,Th5;
take x;
thus thesis by A9,A10;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be Element of R such that
A11: IT1 in X and
A12: IT1 is_maximal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R and
A13: IT2 in X and
A14: IT2 is_maximal_wrt X, the InternalRel of R;
set IR = the InternalRel of R;
A15: IT1 <= IT2 or IT2 <= IT1 by WAYBEL_0:def 29;
per cases by A15,ORDERS_2:def 5;
suppose [IT1, IT2] in IR;
hence thesis by A12,A13,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
suppose [IT2, IT1] in IR;
hence thesis by A11,A14,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
end;
end;
end;
definition
let R be connected non empty Poset;
func FinOrd-Approx R ->
sequence of bool[: Fin the carrier of R, Fin the carrier of R:] means
:Def14:
dom it = NAT & it.0 = {[x,y] where x, y is Element of Fin the carrier of R :
x = {} or (x<>{} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in the InternalRel of R)} &
for n being Nat holds
it.(n+1) = {[x,y] where x,y is Element of Fin the carrier of R :
x <> {} & y <> {} &
PosetMax x = PosetMax y & [x \{PosetMax x}, y \{PosetMax y}] in it.n};
existence
proof
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
set FBCP = [: Fin CR, Fin CR :];
defpred P[Nat,set,set] means $3 =
{[x,y] where x,y is Element of Fin CR : x <> {} & y <> {} &
PosetMax x = PosetMax y & [x \{PosetMax x}, y \{PosetMax y}] in $2};
A1: for n being Nat for x being set ex y being set st P[n,x,y];
consider f being Function such that
A2: dom f = NAT and
A3: f.0 = {[x,y] where x, y is Element of Fin CR :
x={} or (x<>{} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR)} and
A4: for n being Nat holds P[n,f.n,f.(n+1)] from RECDEF_1:sch 1
(A1);
A5: for n being Nat holds P[n,f.n,f.(n+1)]
by A4;
now
thus dom f = NAT by A2;
let x be object;
assume x in NAT;
then reconsider x9 = x as Element of NAT;
per cases;
suppose
A6: x9 = 0;
set F0 = {[a,b] where a, b is Element of Fin the carrier of R :
a={} or (a<>{} & b<>{} & PosetMax a <> PosetMax b &
[PosetMax a,PosetMax b] in IR)};
now
let z be object;
assume z in F0;
then ex a,b being Element of Fin CR st ( z = [a,b])&( a = {} or
a<>{} & b<>{} & PosetMax a <> PosetMax b & [PosetMax a, PosetMax b] in IR);
hence z in FBCP;
end;
then F0 c= FBCP;
hence f.x in bool [:Fin CR, Fin CR:] by A3,A6;
end;
suppose
A7: x9 > 0;
A8: x9 = x9-1+1;
reconsider x1 = x9-1 as Element of NAT by A7,NAT_1:20;
set FX = {[a,b] where a,b is Element of Fin CR :
a <> {} & b <>{} & PosetMax a = PosetMax b &
[a\{PosetMax a}, b\{PosetMax b}] in f.(x1)};
A9: FX = f.x9 by A4,A8;
now
let z be object;
assume z in FX;
then ex a,b being Element of Fin CR st ( z = [a,b])&( a<> {})&(
b <> {})&( PosetMax a = PosetMax b)&( [a\{PosetMax a}, b\{PosetMax b}] in f.(x1
));
hence z in FBCP;
end;
then FX c= FBCP;
hence f.x in bool [:Fin CR, Fin CR:] by A9;
end;
end;
then reconsider f as sequence of bool FBCP by FUNCT_2:3;
take f;
thus thesis by A2,A3,A5;
end;
uniqueness
proof
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
set FBCP = [: Fin CR, Fin CR :];
let IT1, IT2 be sequence of bool FBCP such that
A10: dom IT1 = NAT and
A11: IT1.0 = {[x,y] where x,y is Element of Fin CR : x = {} or (x<>{} &
y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y & [PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR)} and
A12: for n being Nat holds IT1.(n+1) = {[x,y] where x,y is Element of
Fin CR : x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y & [x\{PosetMax x}, y\{
PosetMax y}] in IT1.n} and
A13: dom IT2 = NAT and
A14: IT2.0 = {[x,y] where x, y is Element of Fin CR : x = {} or (x<>{} &
y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y & [PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR)} and
A15: for n being Nat holds IT2.(n+1) = {[x,y] where x,y is Element of
Fin CR : x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y & [x \{PosetMax x}, y \{
PosetMax y}] in IT2.n};
defpred P[Nat,set,set] means
$3 = {[x,y] where x,y is Element of Fin CR : x <> {} & y <> {} &
PosetMax x = PosetMax y & [x \{PosetMax x}, y \{PosetMax y}] in $2};
A16: dom IT1 = NAT by A10;
A17: IT1.0 = {[x,y] where x, y is Element of Fin CR :
x = {} or (x<>{} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR)} by A11;
A18: for n being Nat holds P[n,IT1.n,IT1.(n+1)] by A12;
A19: dom IT2 = NAT by A13;
A20: IT2.0 = {[x,y] where x, y is Element of Fin CR :
x = {} or (x<>{} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR)} by A14;
A21: for n being Nat holds P[n,IT2.n,IT2.(n+1)] by A15;
A22: for n being Nat, x,y1,y2 being set st P[n,x,y1] & P[n,x,y2] holds y1 = y2;
thus IT1 = IT2 from NAT_1:sch 13(A16,A17,A18, A19,A20,
A21, A22);
end;
end;
theorem Th32:
for R being connected non empty Poset,
x,y being Element of Fin the carrier of R
holds [x,y] in union rng FinOrd-Approx R iff x = {} or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in the InternalRel of R or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in union rng FinOrd-Approx R
proof
let R be connected non empty Poset,
x,y be Element of Fin the carrier of R;
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
set FOAR = FinOrd-Approx R;
A1: FOAR.0 = {[a,b] where a,b is Element of Fin CR : a = {} or
(a<>{} & b<>{} & PosetMax a <> PosetMax b &
[PosetMax a, PosetMax b] in IR)} by Def14;
A2: dom FOAR = NAT by Def14;
hereby
assume [x,y] in union rng FOAR;
then consider Y being set such that
A3: [x,y] in Y and
A4: Y in rng FOAR by TARSKI:def 4;
consider n being object such that
A5: n in dom FOAR and
A6: Y = FOAR.n by A4,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider n as Element of NAT by A5;
per cases;
suppose n = 0;
then consider a,b being Element of Fin CR such that
A7: [x,y] = [a,b] and
A8: a = {} or a <> {} & b <> {} & PosetMax a <> PosetMax b &
[PosetMax a, PosetMax b] in IR by A1,A3,A6;
x = a by A7,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence x = {} or x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR or
x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x}, y\{PosetMax y}] in union rng FOAR by A7,A8,XTUPLE_0:1;
end;
suppose n > 0;
then
A9: n-1 is Element of NAT by NAT_1:20;
then FOAR.(n-1+1) = {[a,b] where a,b is Element of Fin CR : a<>{} &
b <> {} & PosetMax a = PosetMax b &
[a\{PosetMax a},b\{PosetMax b}] in FOAR.(n-1)} by Def14;
then consider a,b being Element of Fin CR such that
A10: [x,y] = [a,b] and
a<>{} and
A11: b<>{} and
A12: PosetMax a = PosetMax b and
A13: [a\{PosetMax a},b\{PosetMax b}] in FOAR.(n-1) by A3,A6;
A14: x = a by A10,XTUPLE_0:1;
A15: y = b by A10,XTUPLE_0:1;
FOAR.(n-1) in rng FOAR by A2,A9,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence x = {} or x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x, PosetMax y] in IR or
x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x \ {PosetMax x}, y \ {PosetMax y}] in union rng FOAR
by A11,A12,A13,A14,A15,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
end;
assume
A16: x = {} or x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x, PosetMax y] in IR or
x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x}, y\{PosetMax y}] in union rng FOAR;
per cases by A16;
suppose x = {};
then
A17: [x,y] in FOAR.0 by A1;
FOAR.0 in rng FOAR by A2,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A17,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
suppose x <> {} & y <> {} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x, PosetMax y] in IR;
then
A18: [x,y] in FOAR.0 by A1;
FOAR.0 in rng FOAR by A2,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A18,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
suppose
A19: x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x}, y\{PosetMax y}] in union rng FOAR;
set NEXTXY = [x\{PosetMax x}, y\{PosetMax y}];
consider Y being set such that
A20: NEXTXY in Y and
A21: Y in rng FinOrd-Approx R by A19,TARSKI:def 4;
consider n being object such that
A22: n in dom FOAR and
A23: Y = FOAR.n by A21,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider n as Nat by A22;
FOAR.(n+1) = {[a,b] where a,b is Element of Fin CR: a<>{} & b<>{}&
PosetMax a = PosetMax b & [a\{PosetMax a}, b\{PosetMax b}] in FOAR.n}
by Def14;
then
A24: [x,y] in FOAR.(n+1) by A19,A20,A23;
FOAR.(n+1) in rng FOAR by A2,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A24,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
end;
theorem Th33:
for R being connected non empty Poset,
x being Element of Fin the carrier of R
st x <> {} holds not [x,{}] in union rng FinOrd-Approx R
proof
let R be connected non empty Poset,
x be Element of Fin the carrier of R such that
A1: x <> {};
set CR = the carrier of R, FOAR = FinOrd-Approx R;
reconsider y={} as Element of Fin CR by FINSUB_1:7;
now
assume
A2: [x,y] in union rng FinOrd-Approx R;
per cases by A2,Th32;
suppose x = {};
hence contradiction by A1;
end;
suppose x<>{} & y<>{} & [PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in CR;
hence contradiction;
end;
suppose x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\PosetMax x, {}\PosetMax y] in union rng FOAR;
hence contradiction;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th34:
for R being connected non empty Poset,
a being Element of Fin the carrier of R
holds a\{PosetMax a} is Element of Fin the carrier of R
proof
let R be connected non empty Poset, a be Element of Fin the carrier of R;
set CR = the carrier of R;
A1: a c= CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
reconsider a9=a as finite set;
set z = a9\{PosetMax a};
z c= CR by A1;
hence thesis by FINSUB_1:def 5;
end;
Lm1: for R being connected non empty Poset, n being Nat,
a being Element of Fin the carrier of R
st card a = n+1 holds card (a\{PosetMax a}) = n
proof
let R be connected non empty Poset, n be Nat,
a be Element of Fin the carrier of R;
assume
A1: card a = n+1;
reconsider a9=a as finite set;
now
let w be object;
assume w in {PosetMax a};
then w = PosetMax a by TARSKI:def 1;
hence w in a by A1,Def13,CARD_1:27;
end;
then {PosetMax a} c= a;
then
A2: card (a9\{PosetMax a}) = card a9 - card {PosetMax a} by CARD_2:44;
card {PosetMax a} = 1 by CARD_1:30;
hence thesis by A1,A2;
end;
theorem Th35:
for R being connected non empty Poset
holds union (rng FinOrd-Approx R) is Order of Fin the carrier of R
proof
let R be connected non empty Poset;
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
set X = union (rng FinOrd-Approx R);
set FOAR = FinOrd-Approx R;
set FOAR0 = {[a,b] where a,b is Element of Fin CR: a={} or (a<>{} &
b<>{} & PosetMax a <> PosetMax b & [PosetMax a,PosetMax b] in IR)};
A1: (FOAR).0 = FOAR0 by Def14;
now
let x be object;
assume x in X;
then
A2: ex Y being set st ( x in Y)&( Y in rng FOAR) by TARSKI:def 4;
rng FOAR c= bool [:Fin CR,Fin CR:] by RELAT_1:def 19;
hence x in [:Fin CR, Fin CR:] by A2;
end;
then reconsider X as Relation of Fin CR by TARSKI:def 3;
A3: now
let x be object such that
A4: x in Fin CR;
0 in NAT;
then 0 in dom FOAR by Def14;
then
A5: (FOAR).0 in rng FOAR by FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider x9=x as Element of Fin CR by A4;
defpred P[Nat] means
(for x being Element of Fin CR st card x = $1
holds [x,x] in union rng FOAR);
A6: P[ 0 ]
proof
let x be Element of Fin CR;
assume card x = 0;
then x = {};
then [x,x] in (FOAR).0 by A1;
hence thesis by A5,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
A7: for n being Nat st P[n] holds P[n+1]
proof
let n be Nat such that
A8: for x being Element of Fin CR st card x = n
holds [x,x] in union rng FOAR;
let y be Element of Fin CR such that
A9: card y = n+1;
per cases;
suppose y = {};
then [y,y] in (FOAR).0 by A1;
hence thesis by A5,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
suppose
A10: y <> {};
set z = y\{PosetMax y};
reconsider z as Element of Fin CR by Th34;
card z = n by A9,Lm1;
then [z,z] in union rng FOAR by A8;
hence thesis by A10,Th32;
end;
end;
A11: for n being Nat holds P[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A6, A7);
reconsider xx=x as set by TARSKI:1;
card x9 = card xx;
hence [x,x] in X by A11;
end;
A12: now
let x,y be object such that
A13: x in Fin CR and
A14: y in Fin CR and
A15: [x,y] in X and
A16: [y,x] in X;
reconsider x9=x as Element of Fin CR by A13;
defpred R[Nat] means (for x, y being Element of Fin CR
st card x = $1 & [x,y] in X & [y,x] in X holds x = y);
now
let a,b be Element of Fin CR such that
A17: card a = 0 and [a,b] in X and
A18: [b,a] in X;
reconsider a9=a as finite set;
a9 = {} by A17;
hence a = b by A18,Th33;
end;
then
A19: R[ 0 ];
now
let n be Nat such that
A20: for a,b being Element of Fin CR
st card a = n & [a,b] in X & [b,a] in X holds a = b;
let a,b be Element of Fin CR such that
A21: card a = n+1 and
A22: [a,b] in X and
A23: [b,a] in X;
per cases by A22,Th32;
suppose a = {};
hence a = b by A21;
end;
suppose
A24: a <> {} & b <>{} & PosetMax a <> PosetMax b &
[PosetMax a, PosetMax b] in IR;
now per cases by A23,Th32;
suppose b = {};
hence a = b by A24;
end;
suppose b<>{} & a<>{} & PosetMax b <> PosetMax a &
[PosetMax b, PosetMax a] in IR;
hence a = b by A24,ORDERS_1:4;
end;
suppose b <>{} & a <>{} & PosetMax b = PosetMax a &
[b\{PosetMax b}, a\{PosetMax a}] in X;
hence a = b by A24;
end;
end;
hence a = b;
end;
suppose
A25: a <> {} & b <>{} & PosetMax a = PosetMax b &
[a\{PosetMax a}, b\{PosetMax b}] in X;
now per cases by A23,Th32;
suppose b = {};
hence a = b by A25;
end;
suppose b<>{} & a<>{} & PosetMax b <> PosetMax a &
[PosetMax b, PosetMax a] in IR;
hence a = b by A25;
end;
suppose
A26: b <>{} & a <>{} & PosetMax b = PosetMax a &
[b\{PosetMax b}, a\{PosetMax a}] in X;
reconsider a9= a as finite set;
reconsider b9 = b as finite set;
set za = a9\{PosetMax a}, zb = b9\{PosetMax b};
reconsider za,zb as Element of Fin CR by Th34;
card (za)=n by A21,Lm1;
then
A27: za = zb by A20,A25,A26;
now
let z be object;
assume z in {PosetMax a};
then z = PosetMax a by TARSKI:def 1;
hence z in a by A26,Def13;
end;
then {PosetMax a} c= a;
then
A28: a = {PosetMax a} \/ za by XBOOLE_1:45;
now
let z be object;
assume z in {PosetMax b};
then z = PosetMax b by TARSKI:def 1;
hence z in b by A26,Def13;
end;
then {PosetMax b} c= b;
hence a = b by A26,A27,A28,XBOOLE_1:45;
end;
end;
hence a = b;
end;
end;
then
A29: for n being Nat st R[n] holds R[n+1];
A30: for n being Nat holds R[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A19,A29);
reconsider xx=x as set by TARSKI:1;
card x9 = card xx;
hence x = y by A14,A15,A16,A30;
end;
A31: now
let x,y,z be object such that
A32: x in Fin CR and
A33: y in Fin CR and
A34: z in Fin CR and
A35: [x,y] in X and
A36: [y,z] in X;
defpred S[Nat] means (for a,b,c being Element of Fin CR
st card a = $1 & [a,b] in X & [b,c] in X holds [a,c] in X);
now
let a,b,c be Element of Fin CR such that
A37: card a = 0 and [a,b] in X
and [b,c] in X;
reconsider a9=a as finite set;
a9 = {} by A37;
hence [a,c] in X by Th32;
end;
then
A38: S[ 0 ];
now
let n be Nat such that
A39: for a,b,c being Element of Fin CR
st card a = n & [a,b] in X & [b,c] in X holds [a,c] in X;
let a,b,c be Element of Fin CR such that
A40: card a = n+1 and
A41: [a,b] in X and
A42: [b,c] in X;
per cases by A41,Th32;
suppose a = {};
hence [a,c] in X by Th32;
end;
suppose
A43: a <> {} & b <> {} & PosetMax a <> PosetMax b &
[PosetMax a, PosetMax b] in IR;
now per cases by A42,Th32;
suppose b = {};
hence [a,c] in X by A43;
end;
suppose
A44: b<>{} & c <> {} & PosetMax b <> PosetMax c &
[PosetMax b, PosetMax c] in IR;
then
A45: [PosetMax a, PosetMax c] in IR by A43,ORDERS_1:5;
now per cases;
suppose PosetMax a <> PosetMax c;
hence [a,c] in X by A43,A44,A45,Th32;
end;
suppose PosetMax a = PosetMax c;
hence [a,c] in X by A43,A44,ORDERS_1:4;
end;
end;
hence [a,c] in X;
end;
suppose b<>{} & c <> {} & PosetMax b = PosetMax c &
[b\{PosetMax b}, c\{PosetMax c}] in union rng FOAR;
hence [a,c] in X by A43,Th32;
end;
end;
hence [a,c] in X;
end;
suppose
A46: a <> {} & b <> {} & PosetMax a = PosetMax b &
[a\{PosetMax a}, b\{PosetMax b}] in union rng FOAR;
now per cases by A42,Th32;
suppose b = {};
hence [a,c] in X by A46;
end;
suppose b<>{} & c <>{} & PosetMax b <> PosetMax c &
[PosetMax b, PosetMax c] in IR;
hence [a,c] in X by A46,Th32;
end;
suppose
A47: b<>{} & c <>{} & PosetMax b = PosetMax c &
[b\{PosetMax b}, c\{PosetMax c}] in union rng FOAR;
set z = a\{PosetMax a};
reconsider z as Element of Fin CR by Th34;
A48: card z = n by A40,Lm1;
A49: c c= CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
reconsider c9=c as finite set;
set zc = c9\{PosetMax c};
zc c= CR by A49;
then reconsider zc as Element of Fin CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
A50: b c= CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
reconsider b9=b as finite set;
set zb = b9\{PosetMax b};
zb c= CR by A50;
then reconsider zb as Element of Fin CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
[z,zb] in union rng FOAR by A46;
then [z,zc] in union rng FOAR by A39,A47,A48;
hence [a,c] in X by A46,A47,Th32;
end;
end;
hence [a,c] in X;
end;
end;
then
A51: for n being Nat st S[n] holds S[n+1];
A52: for n being Nat holds S[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A38, A51);
reconsider x9=x as Element of Fin CR by A32;
reconsider xx=x as set by TARSKI:1;
card x9 = card xx;
hence [x,z] in X by A33,A34,A35,A36,A52;
end;
A53: X is_reflexive_in Fin CR by A3;
A54: X is_antisymmetric_in Fin CR by A12;
A55: X is_transitive_in Fin CR by A31;
reconsider R = union rng FOAR as Relation of Fin CR by A3;
A56: dom R = Fin CR by A53,ORDERS_1:13;
field R = Fin CR by A53,ORDERS_1:13;
hence thesis by A53,A54,A55,A56,PARTFUN1:def 2,RELAT_2:def 9,def 12,def 16;
end;
definition
let R be connected non empty Poset;
func FinOrd R -> Order of Fin (the carrier of R) equals
union rng FinOrd-Approx R;
coherence by Th35;
end;
definition
let R be connected non empty Poset;
func FinPoset R -> Poset equals
RelStr (# Fin the carrier of R, FinOrd R #);
correctness;
end;
registration
let R be connected non empty Poset;
cluster FinPoset R -> non empty;
correctness;
end;
theorem Th36:
for R being connected non empty Poset,a,b being Element of FinPoset R
holds [a,b] in the InternalRel of FinPoset R iff
ex x,y being Element of Fin the carrier of R st a = x & b = y & (x = {} or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in the InternalRel of R or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in FinOrd R)
proof
let R be connected non empty Poset, a,b be Element of FinPoset R;
set CR = the carrier of R;
reconsider x=a, y=b as Element of Fin CR;
hereby
assume
A1: [a,b] in the InternalRel of FinPoset R;
take x,y;
thus a = x & b = y;
thus x = {} or x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in the InternalRel of R or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in FinOrd R by A1,Th32;
end;
assume ex x,y being Element of Fin the carrier of R st a = x & b = y &
( x = {} or x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in the InternalRel of R or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in FinOrd R );
hence thesis by Th32;
end;
registration
let R be connected non empty Poset;
cluster FinPoset R -> connected;
correctness
proof
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
set FIR = FinOrd R, FCR = Fin CR;
A1: FinPoset R = RelStr(#FCR, FIR#);
now
let x,y be Element of FinPoset R;
reconsider x9=x,y9=y as Element of Fin CR;
defpred P[Nat] means (for x,y being Element of Fin CR
st card x = $1 holds ([x,y] in FIR or [y,x] in FIR));
now
let a,b be Element of Fin CR;
assume card a = 0;
then a = {};
hence [a,b] in FIR or [a,b] in FIR by A1,Th36;
end;
then
A2: P[ 0 ];
now
let n be Nat such that
A3: for x,y being Element of Fin CR st card x = n
holds ([x,y] in FIR or [y,x] in FIR);
let a,b be Element of Fin CR such that
A4: card a = n+1;
per cases;
suppose a = {};
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR by A1,Th36;
end;
suppose
A5: a <> {};
now per cases;
suppose b = {};
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR by A1,Th36;
end;
suppose
A6: b <>{};
now per cases;
suppose
A7: PosetMax a <> PosetMax b;
now per cases by WAYBEL_0:def 29;
suppose PosetMax a <= PosetMax b;
then [PosetMax a, PosetMax b] in IR by ORDERS_2:def 5;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR by A1,A5,A6,A7,Th36;
end;
suppose PosetMax b <= PosetMax a;
then [PosetMax b, PosetMax a] in IR by ORDERS_2:def 5;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR by A1,A5,A6,A7,Th36;
end;
end;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR;
end;
suppose
A8: PosetMax a = PosetMax b;
set ax = a\{PosetMax a}, bx = b\{PosetMax b};
A9: card ax = n by A4,Lm1;
reconsider ax,bx as Element of Fin CR by Th34;
now per cases by A3,A9;
suppose [ax,bx] in FIR;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR by A1,A5,A6,A8,Th36;
end;
suppose [bx,ax] in FIR;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR by A1,A5,A6,A8,Th36;
end;
end;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR;
end;
end;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR;
end;
end;
hence [a,b] in FIR or [b,a] in FIR;
end;
end;
then
A10: for n being Nat st P[n] holds P[n+1];
A11: for n being Nat holds P[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A2,A10);
card x9 = card x;
then [x9,y9] in FIR or [y9,x9] in FIR by A11;
hence x <= y or y <= x by ORDERS_2:def 5;
end;
hence thesis by WAYBEL_0:def 29;
end;
end;
definition
let R be connected non empty RelStr, C be non empty set such that
A1: R is well_founded and
A2: C c= the carrier of R;
func MinElement (C,R)-> Element of R means
:Def17:
it in C & it is_minimal_wrt C, the InternalRel of R;
existence
proof
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
IR is_well_founded_in CR by A1;
then consider a0 being object such that
A3: a0 in C and
A4: IR-Seg(a0) misses C by A2,WELLORD1:def 3;
reconsider a0 as Element of R by A2,A3;
take a0;
thus a0 in C by A3;
thus thesis by A3,A4,DICKSON:6;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let IT1, IT2 be Element of R such that
A5: IT1 in C and
A6: IT1 is_minimal_wrt C, the InternalRel of R and
A7: IT2 in C and
A8: IT2 is_minimal_wrt C, the InternalRel of R;
set IR = the InternalRel of R;
assume
A9: IT1 <> IT2;
per cases by WAYBEL_0:def 29;
suppose IT1 <= IT2;
then [IT1, IT2] in IR by ORDERS_2:def 5;
then IT1 in IR-Seg(IT2) by A9,WELLORD1:1;
then IT1 in IR-Seg(IT2) /\ C by A5,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then IR-Seg(IT2) meets C by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
hence contradiction by A8,DICKSON:6;
end;
suppose IT2 <= IT1;
then [IT2, IT1] in IR by ORDERS_2:def 5;
then IT2 in IR-Seg(IT1) by A9,WELLORD1:1;
then IT2 in IR-Seg(IT1) /\ C by A7,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then IR-Seg(IT1) meets C by XBOOLE_0:def 7;
hence contradiction by A6,DICKSON:6;
end;
end;
end;
theorem Th37:
for R being non empty RelStr, s being sequence of R, j being Nat
st s is descending holds s^\j is descending
proof
let R be non empty RelStr, s1 be sequence of R, j be Nat
such that
A1: s1 is descending;
set s2 = s1^\j;
set IR = the InternalRel of R;
now
let n be Nat;
set nj = n+j;
A2: s2.n = s1.nj by NAT_1:def 3;
A3: s2.(n+1) = s1.((n+1)+j) by NAT_1:def 3
.= s1.(n+j+1);
hence s2.(n+1) <> s2.n by A1,A2;
thus [s2.(n+1), s2.n] in IR by A1,A2,A3;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: Theorem 4:69
for R being connected non empty Poset
st R is well_founded holds FinPoset R is well_founded
proof
let R be connected non empty Poset such that
A1: R is well_founded;
set IR = the InternalRel of R, CR = the carrier of R;
set FIR = FinOrd R, FCR = Fin CR;
assume not FinPoset R is well_founded;
then consider A being sequence of FinPoset R such that
A2: A is descending by WELLFND1:14;
set zz = {z where z is sequence of FinPoset R : z is descending};
A in zz by A2;
then reconsider zz as non empty set;
set Z = [: CR, zz :];
defpred S[Nat,set,set] means ex Sn2 being sequence of FinPoset R,
Smax being sequence of CR, an being Element of R,
ix being Nat, bnt being sequence of FinPoset R,
bn being sequence of FinPoset R st Sn2 = ($2)`2 &
(for i being Nat holds
ex Sn2i being Element of Fin CR st Sn2i = Sn2.i & Sn2i <> {} &
Smax.i = PosetMax Sn2i) & an = MinElement(rng Smax, R) &
ix = Smax mindex an & bnt = Sn2^\ix &
(for i being Nat holds bn.i = bnt.i \ {an}) &
(for i being Nat st ix <= i holds Smax.i = an) & $3 = [an,bn];
A3: for n being Nat for Sn being Element of Z
ex Sn1 being Element of Z st S[n,Sn,Sn1]
proof
let n being Nat, Sn be Element of Z;
set Sn2 = Sn`2;
Sn2 in zz;
then
A4: ex z being sequence of FinPoset R st ( z = Sn2)&( z is descending);
then reconsider Sn2 as sequence of FinPoset R;
A5: now
let i be Nat;
assume
A6: Sn2.i = {};
A7: Sn2.(i+1)<>Sn2.i by A4;
[Sn2.(i+1), Sn2.i] in FIR by A4;
hence contradiction by A6,A7,Th33;
end;
defpred P[Nat,set] means
(ex Sn2i being Element of Fin CR st Sn2i = Sn2.$1 &
Sn2i <> {} & $2 = PosetMax Sn2i);
A8: for i being Element of NAT ex y being Element of CR st P[i,y]
proof
let i be Element of NAT;
set Sn2i = Sn2.i;
reconsider Sn2i as Element of Fin CR;
set y = PosetMax Sn2i;
take y;
take Sn2i;
thus Sn2i = Sn2.i;
thus Sn2i <> {} by A5;
thus thesis;
end;
consider Smax being sequence of CR such that
A9: for i being Element of NAT holds P[i,Smax.i] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A8);
set an = MinElement(rng Smax, R);
set ix = Smax mindex an;
set bnt = Sn2^\ix;
defpred R[set,set] means
(ex bni being Element of FCR st bni = bnt.$1 \{an} & $2 = bni);
now
let i be Nat;
set bni = bnt.i \ {an};
reconsider k = bnt.i as finite Subset of CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
k \ {an} in FCR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
then reconsider bni as Element of FCR;
set y = bni;
take y;
take bni;
thus bni = bnt.i \ {an};
thus y = bni;
end;
then
A10: for i being Element of NAT ex y being Element of FCR st R[i,y];
defpred P[Nat] means Smax.(ix+$1) = an;
A11: dom Smax = NAT by FUNCT_2:def 1;
A12: rng Smax c= CR by RELAT_1:def 19;
then
A13: an in rng Smax by A1,Def17;
A14: an is_minimal_wrt rng Smax, IR by A1,A12,Def17;
A15: P[ 0 ] by A11,A13,DICKSON:def 11;
A16: now
let k be Nat such that
A17: P[k];
reconsider ixk = ix+k as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
set ixk1 = ix+(k+1), ixk19 = (ix+k)+1;
consider Sn2ixk being Element of Fin CR such that
A18: Sn2ixk = Sn2.ixk and Sn2ixk <> {} and
A19: Smax.ixk = PosetMax Sn2ixk by A9;
consider Sn2ixk1 being Element of Fin CR such that
A20: Sn2ixk1 = Sn2.ixk1 and
A21: Sn2ixk1 <> {} and
A22: Smax.ixk1 = PosetMax Sn2ixk1 by A9;
reconsider Sn2ixk9 = Sn2ixk, Sn2ixk19 = Sn2ixk1 as
Element of FinPoset R;
ixk1 = ixk19;
then [Sn2ixk19, Sn2ixk9] in FIR by A4,A18,A20;
then consider x,y being Element of Fin CR such that
A23: Sn2ixk1 = x and
A24: Sn2ixk = y and
A25: x = {} or x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in FinOrd R by Th36;
per cases by A25;
suppose x = {};
hence P[k+1] by A21,A23;
end;
suppose
A26: x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR;
Smax.ixk1 in rng Smax by A11,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence P[k+1] by A14,A17,A19,A22,A23,A24,A26,WAYBEL_4:def 25;
end;
suppose x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in FinOrd R;
hence P[k+1] by A17,A19,A22,A23,A24;
end;
end;
A27: for k being Nat holds P[k] from NAT_1:sch 2(A15, A16);
A28: now
let i be Nat;
assume ix <= i;
then consider k being Nat such that
A29: i = ix+k by NAT_1:10;
reconsider k as Nat;
i = ix+k by A29;
hence Smax.i = an by A27;
end;
A30: now
let i be Nat such that
A31: ix <= i;
reconsider i0=i as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
consider Sn2i being Element of Fin CR such that
A32: Sn2i = Sn2.i and Sn2i <> {} and
A33: Smax.i0 = PosetMax Sn2i by A9;
take Sn2i;
thus Sn2i = Sn2.i by A32;
thus PosetMax Sn2i = an by A28,A31,A33;
end;
A34: now
let i be Nat;
set bnti = bnt.i;
reconsider bnti as Element of Fin CR;
take bnti;
thus bnti = bnt.i;
set iix = i+ix;
ex Sn2iix being Element of Fin CR st ( Sn2iix = Sn2.iix)&(
PosetMax Sn2iix = an) by A30,NAT_1:11;
hence PosetMax bnti = an by NAT_1:def 3;
end;
consider bn being sequence of FCR such that
A35: for i being Element of NAT holds R[i,bn.i] from FUNCT_2:sch 3(A10);
reconsider bn as sequence of FinPoset R;
set Sn1 = [an, bn];
A36: bnt is descending by A4,Th37;
now
let i be Nat;
reconsider i0=i as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
A37: ex bni being Element of FCR st ( bni = bnt.i0 \ {an})&( bn.i0
= bni) by A35;
A38: ex bni1 being Element of FCR st ( bni1 = bnt.(i+1) \ {an})&
( bn.(i+1) = bni1) by A35;
reconsider bnti = bnt.i, bnti1 = bnt.(i+1) as Element of FinPoset R;
reconsider bnti9=bnti, bnti19=bnti1 as Element of Fin CR;
A39: bnti1 <> bnti by A36;
[bnti1, bnti] in FIR by A36;
then consider x,y being Element of Fin CR such that
A40: bnti1 = x and
A41: bnti = y and
A42: x = {} or x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in the InternalRel of R or
x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in FinOrd R by Th36;
A43: now
let i be Nat;
bnt.i = Sn2.(i+ix) by NAT_1:def 3;
hence bnt.i <> {} by A5;
end;
A44: now
A45: ex bnti99 being Element of Fin CR st ( bnti99=bnt.i)&(
PosetMax bnti99 = an) by A34;
ex bnti199 being Element of Fin CR st ( bnti199 =bnt.(i+1))
&( PosetMax bnti199 = an) by A34;
hence PosetMax bnti9 = an & PosetMax bnti19 = an by A45;
end;
A46: bnti9 <> {} by A43;
A47: bnti19 <> {} by A43;
A48: an in bnti by A44,A46,Def13;
an in bnti1 by A44,A47,Def13;
hence bn.(i+1) <> bn.i by A37,A38,A39,A48,Th1;
per cases by A42;
suppose x = {};
hence [bn.(i+1), bn.i] in FIR by A40,A43;
end;
suppose x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x <> PosetMax y &
[PosetMax x,PosetMax y] in IR;
hence [bn.(i+1), bn.i] in FIR by A40,A41,A44;
end;
suppose x<>{} & y<>{} & PosetMax x = PosetMax y &
[x\{PosetMax x},y\{PosetMax y}] in FinOrd R;
hence [bn.(i+1), bn.i] in FIR by A37,A38,A40,A41,A44;
end;
end;
then bn is descending;
then bn in zz;
then reconsider Sn1 as Element of Z by ZFMISC_1:def 2;
take Sn1, Sn2,Smax,an,ix,bnt,bn;
thus Sn2 = Sn`2;
thus for i being Nat holds
ex Sn2i being Element of Fin CR st Sn2i = Sn2.i & Sn2i<>{} &
Smax.i = PosetMax Sn2i
proof let i be Nat;
reconsider i0=i as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
ex Sn2i being Element of Fin CR st Sn2i = Sn2.i & Sn2i<>{} &
Smax.i0 = PosetMax Sn2i by A9;
hence thesis;
end;
thus an = MinElement(rng Smax, R);
thus ix = Smax mindex an;
thus bnt = Sn2^\ix;
now
let i be Nat;
reconsider i0=i as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
ex bni being Element of FCR st ( bni = bnt.i0 \ {an})&( bn.i0
= bni) by A35;
hence bn.i = bnt.i \ {an};
end;
hence for i being Nat holds bn.i = bnt.i \ {an};
thus for i being Nat st ix <= i holds Smax.i = an by A28;
thus thesis;
end;
set aStart = the Element of R;
set SS = [aStart, A];
A in zz by A2;
then reconsider SS as Element of Z by ZFMISC_1:def 2;
consider S01 being Element of Z, S02 being sequence of FinPoset R,
S0max being sequence of CR, a0 being Element of R,
i0 being Nat, b0t,b0 being sequence of FinPoset R such that
S02 = SS`2 and
A49: for i being Nat holds
ex S02i being Element of Fin CR st S02i = S02.i & S02i <> {} &
S0max.i = PosetMax S02i and a0 = MinElement(rng S0max, R) and
i0 = S0max mindex a0 and
A50: b0t = S02^\i0 and
A51: for i being Nat holds b0.i = b0t.i \ {a0} and
A52: for i being Nat st i0 <= i holds S0max.i = a0 and
A53: S01 = [a0,b0] by A3;
consider S being sequence of Z such that
A54: S.0 = S01 and
A55: for n being Nat holds S[n,S.n,S.(n+1)] from RECDEF_1:sch 2
(A3);
A56: for n being Nat holds S[n,S.n,S.(n+1)] by A55;
deffunc F(object) = (S.$1)`1;
A57: now
let x be object;
assume x in NAT;
then reconsider x9=x as Nat;
reconsider Sx = S.x9 as Element of [:CR, zz:];
Sx`1 in CR;
hence F(x) in CR;
end;
consider a being sequence of CR such that
A58: for x being object st x in NAT holds a.x = F(x) from FUNCT_2:sch 2(A57);
reconsider a as sequence of R;
defpred PP[Nat] means (for i being Nat holds
(ex b being sequence of FinPoset R st (b = (S.$1)`2) & (for x being set
st x in b.i holds x <> (S.$1)`1 & [x, (S.$1)`1] in IR)));
A59: PP[ 0 ]
proof
let i be Nat;
set b = (S.0)`2;
b in zz;
then ex z being sequence of FinPoset R st ( z = b)&( z is descending);
then reconsider b as sequence of FinPoset R;
take b;
thus b = (S.0)`2;
let x be set such that
A60: x in b.i;
b0 = [a0,b0]`2
.= b by A53,A54;
then
A61: x in b0t.i \ {a0} by A51,A60;
then
A62: x in b0t.i;
not x in {a0} by A61,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
hence
A63: x <> (S.0)`1 by A53,A54,TARSKI:def 1;
b.i c= CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
then reconsider x9=x as Element of R by A60;
A64: x in S02.(i+i0) by A50,A62,NAT_1:def 3;
consider S02ib being Element of Fin CR such that
A65: S02ib = S02.(i+i0) and
A66: S02ib <> {} and
A67: S0max.(i+i0) = PosetMax S02ib by A49;
PosetMax S02ib = a0 by A52,A67,NAT_1:11;
then a0 is_maximal_wrt S02ib, IR by A66,Def13;
then not [a0, x] in IR by A63,A64,A65,A53,A54,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
then not a0 <= x9 by ORDERS_2:def 5;
then x9 <= a0 by WAYBEL_0:def 29;
hence thesis by A53,A54,ORDERS_2:def 5;
end;
A68: for n being Nat st PP[n] holds PP[n+1]
proof
let n be Nat;
assume PP[n];
let i be Nat;
set n1 = n+1;
reconsider n1 as Nat;
set b = (S.n1)`2;
consider Sn2 being sequence of FinPoset R, Smax being sequence of CR,
an being Element of R, ix being Nat,
bnt,bn being sequence of FinPoset R such that
Sn2 = (S.n)`2 and
A69: for i being Nat holds ex Sn2i being Element of Fin CR
st Sn2i = Sn2.i & Sn2i <> {} & Smax.i = PosetMax Sn2i
and an = MinElement(rng Smax, R)
and ix = Smax mindex an and
A70: bnt = Sn2^\ix and
A71: for i being Nat holds bn.i = bnt.i \ {an} and
A72: for i being Nat st ix <= i holds Smax.i = an and
A73: S.(n+1) = [an,bn] by A56;
b in zz;
then ex z being sequence of FinPoset R st ( z = b)&( z is descending);
then reconsider b as sequence of FinPoset R;
take b;
thus b = (S.(n+1))`2;
let x be set such that
A74: x in b.i;
bn = [an,bn]`2
.= b by A73;
then
A75: x in bnt.i \ {an} by A71,A74;
then
A76: x in bnt.i;
not x in {an} by A75,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
hence
A77: x <> (S.(n+1))`1 by A73,TARSKI:def 1;
b.i c= CR by FINSUB_1:def 5;
then reconsider x9=x as Element of R by A74;
A78: x in Sn2.(i+ix) by A70,A76,NAT_1:def 3;
consider Sn2ib being Element of Fin CR such that
A79: Sn2ib = Sn2.(i+ix) and
A80: Sn2ib <> {} and
A81: Smax.(i+ix) = PosetMax Sn2ib by A69;
PosetMax Sn2ib = an by A72,A81,NAT_1:11;
then an is_maximal_wrt Sn2ib, IR by A80,Def13;
then not [an, x] in IR by A77,A78,A79,A73,WAYBEL_4:def 23;
then not an <= x9 by ORDERS_2:def 5;
then x9 <= an by WAYBEL_0:def 29;
hence thesis by A73,ORDERS_2:def 5;
end;
A82: for n being Nat holds PP[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A59, A68);
defpred P3[Nat] means
(ex b being sequence of FinPoset R, i being Nat
st b = (S.$1)`2 & a.($1+1) in b.i);
A83: P3[ 0 ]
proof
set b = (S.0)`2;
b in zz;
then ex z being sequence of FinPoset R st ( z = b)&( z is descending);
then reconsider b as sequence of FinPoset R;
take b;
A84: a.(0 qua Nat+1) = (S.(0 qua Nat+1))`1 by A58;
consider S12 being sequence of FinPoset R,
S1max being sequence of CR, a1 being Element of R,
i1 being Nat, b1t,b1 being sequence of FinPoset R such that
A85: S12 = (S.0)`2 and
A86: for i being Nat holds
ex S12i being Element of Fin CR st S12i = S12.i & S12i <> {} &
S1max.i = PosetMax S12i and
A87: a1 = MinElement(rng S1max, R) and i1 = S1max mindex a1 and
b1t = S12^\i1 and
for i being Nat holds b1.i = b1t.i \ {a1}
and for i being Nat st i1 <= i holds S1max.i = a1 and
A88: S.(0 qua Nat+1) = [a1,b1] by A55;
rng S1max c= CR by RELAT_1:def 19;
then a1 in rng S1max by A1,A87,Def17;
then consider i being object such that
A89: i in dom S1max and
A90: S1max.i = a1 by FUNCT_1:def 3;
A91: ex S12i being Element of Fin CR st ( S12i = S12.i)&( S12i
<> {})&( S1max.i = PosetMax S12i) by A86,A89;
reconsider i as Nat by A89;
take i;
thus b = (S.0)`2;
A92: a1 in b.i by A85,A90,A91,Def13;
thus a.(0 qua Nat+1) in b.i by A84,A88,A92;
end;
A93: for n being Nat st P3[n] holds P3[n+1]
proof
let n being Nat;
assume P3[n];
set b = (S.(n+1))`2;
b in zz;
then ex z being sequence of FinPoset R st ( z = b)&( z is descending);
then reconsider b as sequence of FinPoset R;
take b;
set n1 = n+1;
reconsider n1 as Nat;
consider Sn12 being sequence of FinPoset R,
Sn1max being sequence of CR, an1 being Element of R,
in1 being Nat, bn1t,bn1 being sequence of FinPoset R such that
A94: Sn12 = (S.n1)`2 and
A95: for i being Nat holds
ex Sn12i being Element of Fin CR st Sn12i = Sn12.i & Sn12i<>{} &
Sn1max.i = PosetMax Sn12i and
A96: an1 = MinElement(rng Sn1max, R) and in1 = Sn1max mindex an1 and
bn1t = Sn12^\in1 and
for i being Nat holds bn1.i = bn1t.i \ {an1}
and for i being Nat st in1 <= i holds Sn1max.i = an1 and
A97: S.(n1+1) = [an1,bn1] by A55;
rng Sn1max c= CR by RELAT_1:def 19;
then an1 in rng Sn1max by A1,A96,Def17;
then consider i being object such that
A98: i in dom Sn1max and
A99: Sn1max.i = an1 by FUNCT_1:def 3;
A100: ex Sn12i being Element of Fin CR st ( Sn12i = Sn12.i)&(
Sn12i <> {})&( Sn1max.i = PosetMax Sn12i) by A95,A98;
reconsider i as Nat by A98;
take i;
thus b = (S.(n+1))`2;
A101: an1 in b.i by A94,A99,A100,Def13;
[an1,bn1]`1 = an1;
hence thesis by A58,A101,A97;
end;
A102: for n being Nat holds P3[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A83, A93);
defpred P4[Nat] means
(a.($1+1) <> a.$1 & [a.($1+1), a.$1] in IR);
A103: P4[ 0 ]
proof
A104: a.0 = (S.0)`1 by A58;
consider b being sequence of FinPoset R, i being Nat such that
A105: b = (S.0)`2 and
A106: a.(0 qua Nat+1) in b.i by A83;
ex bb being sequence of FinPoset R st ( bb = (S.0)`2)&( for
x being set st x in bb.i holds x <> (S.0)`1 & [x, (S.0)`1] in IR) by A59;
hence a.(0 qua Nat+1) <> a.0 & [a.(0 qua Nat+1), a.0] in IR
by A104,A105,A106;
end;
A107: for n being Nat st P4[n] holds P4[n+1]
proof
let n be Nat;
assume that a.(n+1) <> a.(n) and [a.(n+1), a.n] in IR;
A108: a.(n+1) = (S.(n+1))`1 by A58;
consider b being sequence of FinPoset R, i being Nat such that
A109: b = (S.(n+1))`2 and
A110: a.((n+1)+1) in b.i by A102;
ex bb being sequence of FinPoset R st ( bb=(S.(n+1))`2)&(
for x being set st x in bb.i holds x <>(S.(n+1))`1 & [x, (S.(n+1)) `1] in IR)
by A82;
hence thesis by A108,A109,A110;
end;
for n being Nat holds P4[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A103, A107);
then a is descending;
hence contradiction by A1,WELLFND1:14;
end;