:: The Field of Quotients over an Integral Domain
:: by Christoph Schwarzweller
::
:: Received May 4, 1998
:: Copyright (c) 1998-2018 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies XBOOLE_0, STRUCT_0, SUBSET_1, ZFMISC_1, SUPINF_2, ALGSTR_0,
MESFUNC1, MCART_1, VECTSP_2, RELAT_1, ARYTM_3, BINOP_1, RLVECT_1,
LATTICES, SETFAM_1, FUNCSDOM, GROUP_1, ARYTM_1, FUNCT_1, VECTSP_1,
MSSUBFAM, TARSKI, QUOFIELD, FUNCT_2, FDIFF_1, MOD_4;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, RELAT_1, XTUPLE_0, MCART_1,
FUNCT_1, RELSET_1, PARTFUN1, FUNCT_2, SETFAM_1, BINOP_1, DOMAIN_1,
STRUCT_0, ALGSTR_0, RLVECT_1, GROUP_1, VECTSP_2, VECTSP_1, TOPS_2,
GRCAT_1, GCD_1, GROUP_6, RINGCAT1, MOD_4;
constructors DOMAIN_1, TOPS_2, GRCAT_1, GROUP_6, GCD_1, ALGSTR_1, RELSET_1,
XTUPLE_0, RINGCAT1, MOD_4;
registrations SUBSET_1, RELSET_1, FUNCT_2, STRUCT_0, VECTSP_1, ALGSTR_1,
GCD_1, XTUPLE_0, RINGCAT1, MOD_4;
requirements SUBSET, BOOLE;
definitions VECTSP_1, VECTSP_2, XBOOLE_0, ALGSTR_0;
equalities STRUCT_0, XBOOLE_0, ALGSTR_0;
expansions VECTSP_1, XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_2, RINGCAT1, MOD_4;
theorems TARSKI, VECTSP_1, VECTSP_2, SUBSET_1, BINOP_1, RLVECT_1, FUNCT_1,
FUNCT_2, GCD_1, RELAT_1, RELSET_1, TOPS_2, XBOOLE_0, GROUP_1, GROUP_6,
STRUCT_0, XTUPLE_0;
schemes SUBSET_1, BINOP_1, FUNCT_2;
begin :: Definition of Pairs
definition
let I be non empty ZeroStr;
func Q.I -> Subset of [:the carrier of I,the carrier of I:] means
:Def1:
for u being set holds
u in it iff ex a,b being Element of I st u = [a,b] & b <> 0.I;
existence
proof
set M = {[a,b] where a,b is Element of I: b <> 0.I };
for u being object holds u in M implies u in [:the carrier of I,the
carrier of I:]
proof
let u be object;
assume u in M;
then ex a,b being Element of I st u = [a,b] & b <> 0.I;
hence thesis;
end;
then
A1: M is Subset of [:the carrier of I,the carrier of I:] by TARSKI:def 3;
for u being set holds u in M iff ex a,b being Element of I st u = [a,b
] & b <> 0.I;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Subset of [:the carrier of I,the carrier of I:];
assume
A2: for u being set holds u in M1 iff ex a,b being Element of I st u =
[a,b] & b <> 0.I;
assume
A3: for u being set holds u in M2 iff ex a,b being Element of I st u =
[a,b] & b <> 0.I;
A4: for u being object holds u in M2 implies u in M1
proof
let u be object;
assume u in M2;
then ex a,b being Element of I st u = [a,b] & b <> 0.I by A3;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
for u being object holds u in M1 implies u in M2
proof
let u be object;
assume u in M1;
then ex a,b being Element of I st u = [a,b] & b <> 0.I by A2;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
hence thesis by A4,TARSKI:2;
end;
end;
theorem Th1:
for I being non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0 holds Q.I is non empty
proof
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
1.I <> 0.I;
then [1.I,1.I] in Q.I by Def1;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
cluster Q.I -> non empty;
coherence by Th1;
end;
theorem Th2:
for I being non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0 for u being
Element of Q.I holds u`2 <> 0.I
proof
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
let u be Element of Q.I;
ex a,b being Element of I st u = [a,b] & b <> 0.I by Def1;
hence thesis;
end;
:: Definition and some Properties of Pair Addition and Multiplication
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like non empty doubleLoopStr;
let u,v be Element of Q.I;
func padd(u,v) -> Element of Q.I equals
[u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2, u`2 * v`2];
coherence
proof
u`2 <> 0.I & v`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then u`2 * v`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
hence thesis by Def1;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like non empty doubleLoopStr;
let u,v be Element of Q.I;
func pmult(u,v) -> Element of Q.I equals
[u`1 * v`1, u`2 * v`2];
coherence
proof
u`2 <> 0.I & v`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then u`2 * v`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
hence thesis by Def1;
end;
end;
theorem Th3:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like associative commutative
Abelian add-associative distributive non empty doubleLoopStr for u,v,w being
Element of Q.I holds padd(u,padd(v,w)) = padd(padd(u,v),w)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like associative add-associative Abelian
distributive commutative non empty doubleLoopStr;
let u,v,w be Element of Q.I;
A1: u`1 * (v`2 * w`2) + (v`1 * w`2 + w`1 * v`2) * u`2 = u`1 * (v`2 * w`2) +
((v`1 * w`2) * u`2 + (w`1 * v`2) * u`2) by VECTSP_1:def 3
.= (u`1 * (v`2 * w`2) + (v`1 * w`2) * u`2) + (w`1 * v`2) * u`2 by
RLVECT_1:def 3
.= (u`1 * (v`2 * w`2) + (v`1 * w`2) * u`2) + w`1 * (v`2 * u`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((u`1 * v`2) * w`2 + (v`1 * w`2) * u`2) + w`1 * (v`2 * u`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((u`1 * v`2) * w`2 + (v`1 * u`2) * w`2) + w`1 * (v`2 * u`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= (((u`1 * v`2) + (v`1 * u`2)) * w`2) + w`1 * (v`2 * u`2) by
VECTSP_1:def 3;
A2: v`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
u`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then u`2 * v`2 <> 0.I by A2,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s = [u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2, u`2 * v`2] as Element of Q.I by
Def1;
w`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then v`2 * w`2 <> 0.I by A2,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider t = [v`1 * w`2 + w`1 * v`2, v`2 * w`2] as Element of Q.I by
Def1;
padd(u,padd(v,w)) = [u`1 * t`2 + (v`1 * w`2 + w`1 * v`2) * u`2, u`2 * t`2]
.= [u`1 * (v`2 * w`2) + (v`1 * w`2 + w`1 * v`2) * u`2, u`2 * t`2]
.= [u`1 * (v`2 * w`2) + (v`1 * w`2 + w`1 * v`2) * u`2, u`2 * (v`2 * w`2)
]
.= [u`1 * (v`2 * w`2) + (v`1 * w`2 + w`1 * v`2) * u`2, (u`2 * v`2) * w`2
] by GROUP_1:def 3;
then padd(u,padd(v,w)) = [s`1 * w`2 + w`1 * (v`2 * u`2), (u`2 * v`2) * w`2]
by A1
.= [s`1 * w`2 + w`1 * s`2, (u`2 * v`2) * w`2]
.= padd(padd(u,v),w);
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th4:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like associative commutative
Abelian non empty doubleLoopStr for u,v,w being Element of Q.I holds pmult(u,
pmult(v,w)) = pmult(pmult(u,v),w)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like associative commutative Abelian non
empty doubleLoopStr;
let u,v,w be Element of Q.I;
A1: v`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
w`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then v`2 * w`2 <> 0.I by A1,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider t = [v`1 * w`1, v`2 * w`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
u`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then u`2 * v`2 <> 0.I by A1,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s = [u`1 * v`1, u`2 * v`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
pmult(u,pmult(v,w)) = [u`1 * (v`1 * w`1), u`2 * t`2]
.= [u`1 * (v`1 * w`1), u`2 * (v`2 * w`2)]
.= [(u`1 * v`1) * w`1, u`2 * (v`2 * w`2)] by GROUP_1:def 3
.= [(u`1 * v`1) * w`1, (u`2 * v`2) * w`2] by GROUP_1:def 3
.= [s`1 * w`1, (u`2 * v`2) * w`2]
.= pmult(pmult(u,v),w);
hence thesis;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like associative commutative Abelian
add-associative distributive non empty doubleLoopStr;
let u, v be Element of Q.I;
redefine func padd(u,v);
commutativity
proof
let u,v be Element of Q.I;
thus padd(u,v) = [u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2, u`2 * v`2] .= padd(v,u);
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like associative commutative Abelian non
empty doubleLoopStr;
let u, v be Element of Q.I;
redefine func pmult(u,v);
commutativity
proof
let u,v be Element of Q.I;
thus pmult(u,v) = [u`1 * v`1, u`2 * v`2] .= pmult(v,u);
end;
end;
:: Definition of Classes of Pairs
definition
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
let u be Element of Q.I;
func QClass.u -> Subset of Q.I means
:Def4:
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in it iff z`1 * u`2 = z`2 * u`1;
existence
proof
set M = {z where z is Element of Q.I: z`1 * u`2 = z`2 * u`1 };
for x being Element of Q.I holds x in M implies x`1 * u`2 = x`2 * u`1
proof
let x be Element of Q.I;
assume x in M;
then ex z being Element of Q.I st x = z & z`1 * u`2 = z`2 * u `1;
hence thesis;
end;
then
A1: for x being Element of Q.I holds x in M iff x`1 * u`2 = x`2 * u`1;
for x being object holds x in M implies x in Q.I
proof
let x be object;
assume x in M;
then ex z being Element of Q.I st x = z & z`1 * u`2 = z`2 * u `1;
hence thesis;
end;
then M is Subset of Q.I by TARSKI:def 3;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Subset of Q.I;
assume
A2: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 iff z`1 * u`2 = z`2 * u`1;
assume
A3: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 iff z`1 * u`2 = z`2 * u `1;
A4: for x being object holds x in M2 implies x in M1
proof
let x be object;
assume
A5: x in M2;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.I;
x`1 * u`2 = x`2 * u`1 by A3,A5;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
for x being object holds x in M1 implies x in M2
proof
let x be object;
assume
A6: x in M1;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.I;
x`1 * u`2 = x`2 * u`1 by A2,A6;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
hence thesis by A4,TARSKI:2;
end;
end;
theorem Th5:
for I being non degenerated commutative non empty multLoopStr_0
for u being Element of Q.I holds u in QClass.u
proof
let I be non degenerated commutative non empty multLoopStr_0;
let u be Element of Q.I;
u`1 * u`2 = u`1 * u`2;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated commutative non empty multLoopStr_0;
let u be Element of Q.I;
cluster QClass.u -> non empty;
coherence by Th5;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
func Quot.I -> Subset-Family of Q.I means
:Def5:
for A being Subset of Q.I
holds A in it iff ex u being Element of Q.I st A = QClass.u;
existence
proof
defpred P[set] means ex u being Element of Q.I st $1 = QClass.u;
thus ex S be Subset-Family of Q.I st for A being Subset of Q.I holds A in
S iff P[A] from SUBSET_1:sch 3;
end;
uniqueness
proof
defpred P[set] means ex a being Element of Q.I st $1 = QClass.a;
let F1,F2 be Subset-Family of Q.I;
assume
A1: for A being Subset of Q.I holds A in F1 iff P[A];
assume
A2: for A being Subset of Q.I holds A in F2 iff P[A];
thus thesis from SUBSET_1:sch 4(A1,A2);
end;
end;
theorem Th6:
for I being non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0 holds Quot.
I is non empty
proof
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
1.I <> 0.I;
then reconsider u = [1.I,1.I] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
QClass.u in Quot.I by Def5;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
cluster Quot.I -> non empty;
coherence by Th6;
end;
theorem Th7:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of Q.I holds (ex w being Element of Quot.I st u in w & v in w)
implies u`1 * v`2 = v`1 * u`2
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Q.I;
given w being Element of Quot.I such that
A1: u in w and
A2: v in w;
consider z being Element of Q.I such that
A3: w = QClass.z by Def5;
A4: u`1 * z`2 = z`1 * u`2 by A1,A3,Def4;
z`2 divides z`2;
then
A5: z`2 divides (v`2 * u`1) * z`2 by GCD_1:7;
A6: v`1 * z`2 = z`1 * v`2 by A2,A3,Def4;
then
A7: z`2 divides z`1 * v`2 by GCD_1:def 1;
then
A8: z`2 divides (z`1 * v`2) * u`2 by GCD_1:7;
A9: z`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
hence v`1 * u`2 = ((z`1 * v`2)/z`2) * u`2 by A6,A7,GCD_1:def 4
.= ((z`1 * v`2) * u`2) / z`2 by A7,A8,A9,GCD_1:11
.= (v`2 * (u`1 * z`2)) / z`2 by A4,GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((v`2 * u`1) * z`2) / z`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (v`2 * u`1) * (z`2/z`2) by A5,A9,GCD_1:11
.= (u`1 * v`2) * 1_I by A9,GCD_1:9
.= u`1 * v`2;
end;
theorem Th8:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of Quot.I holds u meets v implies u = v
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: u = QClass.x by Def5;
assume u /\ v <> {};
then u meets v;
then consider w being object such that
A2: w in u and
A3: w in v by XBOOLE_0:3;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A4: v = QClass.y by Def5;
reconsider w as Element of Q.I by A2;
A5: w`1 * y`2 = w`2 * y`1 by A4,A3,Def4;
A6: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.x implies z in QClass.y
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
w`2 divides w`2;
then
A7: w`2 divides (z`2 * y`1) * w`2 by GCD_1:7;
assume z in QClass.x;
then
A8: z`1 * w`2 = z`2 * w`1 by A1,A2,Th7;
then
A9: w`2 divides z`2 * w`1 by GCD_1:def 1;
then
A10: w`2 divides (z`2 * w`1) * y`2 by GCD_1:7;
A11: w`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then z`1 * y`2 = ((z`2 * w`1)/w`2) * y`2 by A8,A9,GCD_1:def 4
.= ((z`2 * w`1) * y`2) / w`2 by A9,A10,A11,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * (w`2 * y`1)) / w`2 by A5,GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((z`2 * y`1) * w`2) / w`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * y`1) * (w`2/w`2) by A7,A11,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * y`1) * 1_I by A11,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * y`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
A12: w`1 * x`2 = w`2 * x`1 by A1,A2,Def4;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.y implies z in QClass.x
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
w`2 divides w`2;
then
A13: w`2 divides (z`2 * x`1) * w`2 by GCD_1:7;
assume z in QClass.y;
then
A14: z`1 * w`2 = z`2 * w`1 by A4,A3,Th7;
then
A15: w`2 divides z`2 * w`1 by GCD_1:def 1;
then
A16: w`2 divides (z`2 * w`1) * x`2 by GCD_1:7;
A17: w`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then z`1 * x`2 = ((z`2 * w`1)/w`2) * x`2 by A14,A15,GCD_1:def 4
.= ((z`2 * w`1) * x`2) / w`2 by A15,A16,A17,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * (w`2 * x`1)) / w`2 by A12,GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((z`2 * x`1) * w`2) / w`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * x`1) * (w`2/w`2) by A13,A17,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * x`1) * 1_I by A17,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * x`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
hence thesis by A1,A4,A6,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
begin :: Definition of Quotient Field Addition and Multiplication
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
func qadd(u,v) -> Element of Quot.I means
:Def6:
for z being Element of Q.I
holds z in it iff ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 *
b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2);
existence
proof
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A1: v = QClass.y by Def5;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A2: u = QClass.x by Def5;
x`2 <> 0.I & y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider
t = [x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
set M = QClass.t;
A3: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M implies ex a,b being Element
of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2)
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * (x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2);
then
A4: z`1 * (x`2 * y`2) = z`2 * (x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2);
x in u by A2,Th5;
hence thesis by A1,A4,Th5;
end;
A5: for z being Element of Q.I holds (ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in
u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2)) implies z in M
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
given a,b being Element of Q.I such that
A6: a in u and
A7: b in v and
A8: z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2);
A9: b`1 * y`2 = b`2 * y`1 by A1,A7,Def4;
a`2 <> 0.I & b`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A10: a`2 * b`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
A11: a`1 * x`2 = a`2 * x`1 by A2,A6,Def4;
now
per cases;
case
A12: a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2 = 0.I;
then 0.I = (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) * (x`2 * y`2)
.= ((a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) * x`2) * y`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((a`1 * b`2) * x`2 + (b`1 * a`2) * x`2) * y`2 by VECTSP_1:def 3
.= ((a`1 * b`2) * x`2) * y`2 + ((b`1 * a`2) * x`2) * y`2 by
VECTSP_1:def 3
.= ((a`1 * x`2) * b`2) * y`2 + (x`2 * (a`2 * b`1)) * y`2 by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((a`1 * x`2) * b`2) * y`2 + x`2 * ((a`2 * b`1) * y`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((a`2 * x`1) * b`2) * y`2 + x`2 * (a`2 * (b`1 * y`2)) by A11,
GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((a`2 * x`1) * b`2) * y`2 + x`2 * ((a`2 * b`2) * y`1) by A9,
GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((a`2 * x`1) * b`2) * y`2 + (x`2 * y`1) * (a`2 * b`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= y`2 * (x`1 * (a`2 * b`2)) + (x`2 * y`1) * (a`2 * b`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= (y`2 * x`1) * (a`2 * b`2) + (x`2 * y`1) * (a`2 * b`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= (y`2 * x`1 + x`2 * y`1) * (a`2 * b`2) by VECTSP_1:def 3;
then
A13: y`2 * x`1 + x`2 * y`1 = 0.I by A10,VECTSP_2:def 1;
z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) = 0.I by A12;
then z`1 = 0.I by A8,A10,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then z`1 * t`2 = 0.I
.= z`2 * (y`2 * x`1 + x`2 * y`1) by A13
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
case
A14: a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2 <> 0.I;
a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2 divides (a`1 * b`2) + (b`1 * a`2);
then
A15: a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2 divides (z`1 * (y`2 * x`2)) * ((a`1 * b`2
) + (b`1 * a`2)) by GCD_1:7;
A16: (z`1 * ((y`2 * x`2) * ((a`1 * b`2) + (b`1 * a`2)))) / (a`1 * b
`2 + b`1 * a`2) = ((z`1 * (y`2 * x`2)) * ((a`1 * b`2) + (b`1 * a`2))) / (a`1 *
b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (y`2 * x`2)) * ((a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) / (a`1 * b`2 +
b`1 * a`2)) by A14,A15,GCD_1:11
.= (z`1 * (y`2 * x`2)) * 1_I by A14,GCD_1:9
.= z`1 * (x`2 * y`2);
A17: a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2 divides z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) by A8,GCD_1:def 1;
then
A18: a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2 divides (z`1 * (a`2 * b`2)) * (x`1 * y`2
+ y`1 * x`2) by GCD_1:7;
(z`1 * (a`2 * b`2)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) = z`2 by A8,A14,A17,
GCD_1:def 4;
then
z`2 * (x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2) = ((z`1 * (a`2 * b`2)) * (x`1 * y
`2 + y`1 * x`2)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by A14,A17,A18,GCD_1:11
.= (((z`1 * a`2) * b`2) * (x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2)) / (a`1 * b`2
+ b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((z`1 * a`2) * (b`2 * (x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2))) / (a`1 * b`2
+ b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (a`2 * (b`2 * (x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2)))) / (a`1 * b`2
+ b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (a`2 * (b`2 * (x`1 * y`2) + b`2 * (y`1 * x`2)))) / (a
`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by VECTSP_1:def 2
.= (z`1 * (a`2 * (b`2 * (x`1 * y`2)) + a`2 * (b`2 * (y`1 * x`2))
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by VECTSP_1:def 2
.= (z`1 * (a`2 * ((b`2 * x`1) * y`2) + a`2 * (b`2 * (y`1 * x`2))
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * ((a`2 * (x`1 * b`2)) * y`2 + a`2 * (b`2 * (y`1 * x`2))
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (((a`1 * x`2) * b`2) * y`2 + a`2 * (b`2 * (y`1 * x`2))
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by A11,GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (((a`1 * x`2) * b`2) * y`2 + a`2 * ((b`1 * y`2) * x`2)
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by A9,GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (y`2 * (x`2 * (a`1 * b`2)) + a`2 * ((b`1 * y`2) * x`2)
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (y`2 * (x`2 * (a`1 * b`2)) + x`2 * (a`2 * (b`1 * y`2))
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (y`2 * (x`2 * (a`1 * b`2)) + x`2 * (y`2 * (b`1 * a`2))
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * ((y`2 * x`2) * (a`1 * b`2) + x`2 * (y`2 * (b`1 * a`2))
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * ((y`2 * x`2) * (a`1 * b`2) + (y`2 * x`2) * (b`1 * a`2)
)) / (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * ((y`2 * x`2) * ((a`1 * b`2) + (b`1 * a`2)))) / (a`1 *
b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by VECTSP_1:def 2;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * (y`2 * x`1 + x`2 * y`1) by A16
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
M is Element of Quot.I by Def5;
hence thesis by A5,A3;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A19: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 iff ex a,b being Element
of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2);
assume
A20: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 iff ex a,b being Element
of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2);
A21: for x being object holds x in M2 implies x in M1
proof
let x be object;
assume
A22: x in M2;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.I;
ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in u & b in v & x`1 * (a`2 * b`2)
= x`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by A20,A22;
hence thesis by A19;
end;
for x being object holds x in M1 implies x in M2
proof
let x be object;
assume
A23: x in M1;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.I;
ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in u & b in v & x`1 * (a`2 * b`2)
= x`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by A19,A23;
hence thesis by A20;
end;
hence thesis by A21,TARSKI:2;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
func qmult(u,v) -> Element of Quot.I means
:Def7:
for z being Element of Q.I
holds z in it iff ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 *
b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`1);
existence
proof
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A1: v = QClass.y by Def5;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A2: u = QClass.x by Def5;
x`2 <> 0.I & y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider t = [x`1 * y`1, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
set M = QClass.t;
A3: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M implies ex a,b being Element
of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`1)
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * (x`1 * y`1);
then
A4: z`1 * (x`2 * y`2) = z`2 * (x`1 * y`1);
x in u by A2,Th5;
hence thesis by A1,A4,Th5;
end;
A5: for z being Element of Q.I holds (ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in
u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`1)) implies z in M
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
given a,b being Element of Q.I such that
A6: a in u and
A7: b in v and
A8: z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`1);
A9: a`1 * x`2 = a`2 * x`1 by A2,A6,Def4;
A10: b`1 * y`2 = b`2 * y`1 by A1,A7,Def4;
a`2 <> 0.I & b`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A11: a`2 * b`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
A12: a`2 * b`2 divides z`2 * (a`1 * b`1) by A8,GCD_1:def 1;
then
A13: a`2 * b`2 divides (z`2 * (a`1 * b`1)) * (x`2 * y`2) by GCD_1:7;
a`2 * b`2 divides a`2 * b`2;
then (a`2 * b`2) divides (z`2 * (x`1 * y`1)) * (a`2 * b`2) by GCD_1:7;
then
A14: ((z`2 * (x`1 * y`1)) * (a`2 * b`2)) / (a`2 * b`2) = (z`2 * (x`1 * y
`1)) * ((a`2 * b`2) / (a`2 * b`2)) by A11,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * (x`1 * y`1)) * 1_I by A11,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * (x`1 * y`1);
(z`2 * (a`1 * b`1)) / (a`2 * b`2) = z`1 by A8,A12,A11,GCD_1:def 4;
then z`1 * (x`2 * y`2) = ((z`2 * (a`1 * b`1)) * (x`2 * y`2)) / (a`2 * b
`2) by A12,A11,A13,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * ((a`1 * b`1) * (x`2 * y`2))) / (a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (a`1 * (b`1 * (x`2 * y`2)))) / (a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (a`1 * (x`2 * (b`1 * y`2)))) / (a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((a`2 * x`1) * (b`1 * y`2))) / (a`2 * b`2) by A9,
GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (x`1 * (a`2 * (b`2 * y`1)))) / (a`2 * b`2) by A10,
GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (x`1 * (y`1 * (a`2 * b`2)))) / (a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((x`1 * y`1) * (a`2 * b`2))) / (a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((z`2 * (x`1 * y`1)) * (a`2 * b`2)) / (a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * (x`1 * y`1) by A14
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
M is Element of Quot.I by Def5;
hence thesis by A5,A3;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A15: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 iff ex a,b being Element
of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`1);
assume
A16: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 iff ex a,b being Element
of Q.I st a in u & b in v & z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`1);
A17: for x being object holds x in M2 implies x in M1
proof
let x be object;
assume
A18: x in M2;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.I;
ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in u & b in v & x`1 * (a`2 * b`2)
= x`2 * (a`1 * b`1) by A16,A18;
hence thesis by A15;
end;
for x being object holds x in M1 implies x in M2
proof
let x be object;
assume
A19: x in M1;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.I;
ex a,b being Element of Q.I st a in u & b in v & x`1 * (a`2 * b`2)
= x`2 * (a`1 * b`1) by A15,A19;
hence thesis by A16;
end;
hence thesis by A17,TARSKI:2;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated non empty multLoopStr_0;
let u be Element of Q.I;
redefine func QClass.u -> Element of Quot.I;
coherence by Def5;
end;
theorem Th9:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v being Element of Q.I holds qadd(QClass.u,QClass.v) = QClass.(padd(u,v))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Q.I;
u`2 <> 0.I & v`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then u`2 * v`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider w = [u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2, u`2 * v`2] as Element of Q.I by
Def1;
A1: w`1 = u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2 & w`2 = u`2 * v`2;
A2: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in qadd(QClass.u,QClass.v) implies z
in QClass.(padd(u,v))
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in qadd(QClass.u,QClass.v);
then consider a,b being Element of Q.I such that
A3: a in QClass.u and
A4: b in QClass.v and
A5: z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by Def6;
A6: a`1 * u`2 = a`2 * u`1 by A3,Def4;
A7: b`1 * v`2 = b`2 * v`1 by A4,Def4;
a`2 * b`2 divides a`2 * b`2;
then
A8: a`2 * b`2 divides (z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2)+(v`1 * u`2))) * (a`2 * b`2) by
GCD_1:7;
A9: a`2 * b`2 divides z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) by A5,GCD_1:def 1;
then
A10: a`2 * b`2 divides (z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2)) * (u`2 * v`2) by GCD_1:7
;
a`2 <> 0.I & b`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A11: a`2 * b`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then z`1 = (z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2)) / (a`2 * b`2) by A5,A9,
GCD_1:def 4;
then
z`1 * (u`2 * v`2) = ((z`2 * (a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2)) * (u`2 * v`2)) /
(a`2 * b`2) by A11,A9,A10,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * ((a`1 * b`2 + b`1 * a`2) * (u`2 * v`2))) / (a`2 * b`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((a`1 * b`2) * (u`2 * v`2) + (b`1 * a`2) * (u`2 * v`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by VECTSP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (b`2 * (a`1 * (u`2 * v`2)) + (b`1 * a`2) * (u`2 * v`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (b`2 * ((a`2 * u`1) * v`2) + (b`1 * a`2) * (u`2 * v`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by A6,GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (b`2 * ((a`2 * u`1) * v`2) + a`2 * (b`1 * (v`2 * u`2)))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (b`2 * ((a`2 * u`1) * v`2) + a`2 * ((b`2 * v`1) * u`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by A7,GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((b`2 * (a`2 * u`1)) * v`2 + a`2 * ((b`2 * v`1) * u`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((u`1 * (b`2 * a`2)) * v`2 + a`2 * ((b`2 * v`1) * u`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) * (b`2 * a`2) + a`2 * ((b`2 * v`1) * u`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) * (b`2 * a`2) + (a`2 * (b`2 * v`1)) * u`2)) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) * (a`2 * b`2) + (v`1 * (a`2 * b`2)) * u`2)) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) * (a`2 * b`2) + (v`1 * u`2) * (a`2 * b`2))) / (
a`2 * b`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (((u`1 * v`2) + (v`1 * u`2)) * (a`2 * b`2))) / (a`2 * b`2)
by VECTSP_1:def 3
.= ((z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) + (v`1 * u`2))) * (a`2 * b`2)) / (a`2 * b`2)
by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) + (v`1 * u`2))) * ((a`2 * b`2)/(a`2 * b`2)) by A11
,A8,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) + (v`1 * u`2))) * 1_I by A11,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * ((u`1 * v`2) + (v`1 * u`2));
hence thesis by A1,Def4;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.(padd(u,v)) implies z in
qadd(QClass.u,QClass.v)
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in QClass.(padd(u,v));
then
A12: z`1 * (u`2 * v`2) = z`2 * (u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2) by A1,Def4;
u in QClass.u & v in QClass.v by Th5;
hence thesis by A12,Def6;
end;
hence thesis by A2,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
theorem Th10:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v being Element of Q.I holds qmult(QClass.u,QClass.v) = QClass.(pmult(u,v))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Q.I;
u`2 <> 0.I & v`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then u`2 * v`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider w = [u`1 * v`1, u`2 * v`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
A1: w`1 = u`1 * v`1 & w`2 = u`2 * v`2;
A2: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in qmult(QClass.u,QClass.v) implies z
in QClass.(pmult(u,v))
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in qmult(QClass.u,QClass.v);
then consider a,b being Element of Q.I such that
A3: a in QClass.u and
A4: b in QClass.v and
A5: z`1 * (a`2 * b`2) = z`2 * (a`1 * b`1) by Def7;
A6: b`1 * v`2 = b`2 * v`1 by A4,Def4;
A7: a`1 * u`2 = a`2 * u`1 by A3,Def4;
now
per cases;
case
A8: a`1 = 0.I;
then a`1 * b`1 = 0.I;
then
A9: z`2 * (a`1 * b`1) = 0.I;
A10: a`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
b`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then a`2 * b`2 <> 0.I by A10,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then
A11: z`1 = 0.I by A5,A9,VECTSP_2:def 1;
a`1 * u`2 = 0.I by A8;
then u`1 = 0.I by A7,A10,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then z`2 * (u`1 * v`1) = z`2 * 0.I
.= 0.I
.= z`1 * (u`2 * v`2) by A11;
hence thesis by A1,Def4;
end;
case
A12: b`1 = 0.I;
then a`1 * b`1 = 0.I;
then
A13: z`2 * (a`1 * b`1) = 0.I;
A14: b`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
a`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then a`2 * b`2 <> 0.I by A14,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then
A15: z`1 = 0.I by A5,A13,VECTSP_2:def 1;
b`1 * v`2 = 0.I by A12;
then v`1 = 0.I by A6,A14,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then z`2 * (u`1 * v`1) = z`2 * 0.I
.= 0.I
.= z`1 * (u`2 * v`2) by A15;
hence thesis by A1,Def4;
end;
case
A16: a`1 <> 0.I & b`1 <> 0.I;
a`1 * b`1 divides a`1 * b`1;
then
A17: a`1 * b`1 divides ((z`2 * u`1) * v`1) * (a`1 * b`1) by GCD_1:7;
A18: a`1 * b`1 <> 0.I by A16,VECTSP_2:def 1;
A19: b`1 divides b`2 * v`1 by A6,GCD_1:def 1;
then
A20: v`2 = (b`2 * v`1) / b`1 by A6,A16,GCD_1:def 4;
A21: a`1 divides a`2 * u`1 by A7,GCD_1:def 1;
then
A22: a`1 * b`1 divides (a`2 * u`1) * (b`2 * v`1) by A19,GCD_1:3;
then
A23: a`1 * b`1 divides z`1 * ((a`2 * u`1) * (b`2 * v`1)) by GCD_1:7;
u`2 = (a`2 * u`1) / a`1 by A7,A16,A21,GCD_1:def 4;
then
z`1 * (u`2 * v`2) = z`1 * (((a`2 * u`1) * (b`2 * v`1)) / (a`1 * b
`1)) by A16,A21,A19,A20,GCD_1:14
.= (z`1 * ((a`2 * u`1) * (b`2 * v`1))) / (a`1 * b`1) by A18,A22,A23,
GCD_1:11
.= (z`1 * (((u`1 * a`2) * b`2) * v`1)) / (a`1 * b`1) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`1 * (((a`2 * b`2) * u`1) * v`1)) / (a`1 * b`1) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((z`1 * ((a`2 * b`2) * u`1)) * v`1) / (a`1 * b`1) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (((z`2 * (a`1 * b`1)) * u`1) * v`1) / (a`1 * b`1) by A5,
GROUP_1:def 3
.= (((z`2 * u`1) * (a`1 * b`1)) * v`1) / (a`1 * b`1) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (((z`2 * u`1) * v`1) * (a`1 * b`1)) / (a`1 * b`1) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((z`2 * u`1) * v`1) * ((a`1 * b`1) / (a`1 * b`1)) by A18,A17,
GCD_1:11
.= ((z`2 * u`1) * v`1) * 1_I by A18,GCD_1:9
.= (z`2 * u`1) * v`1
.= z`2 * (u`1 * v`1) by GROUP_1:def 3;
hence thesis by A1,Def4;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.(pmult(u,v)) implies z in
qmult(QClass.u,QClass.v)
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in QClass.(pmult(u,v));
then
A24: z`1 * (u`2 * v`2) = z`2 * (u`1 * v`1) by A1,Def4;
u in QClass.u & v in QClass.v by Th5;
hence thesis by A24,Def7;
end;
hence thesis by A2,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
:: Properties of Quotient Field Addition and Multiplication
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func q0.I -> Element of Quot.I means
:Def8:
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in it iff z`1 = 0.I;
existence
proof
reconsider t = [0.I,1_I] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
set M = QClass.t;
A1: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M implies z`1 = 0.I
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M;
then
A2: z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4
.= z`2 * 0.I
.= 0.I;
thus thesis by A2;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z`1 = 0.I implies z in M
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z`1 = 0.I;
then z`1 * t`2 = 0.I
.= z`2 * 0.I
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A3: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 iff z`1 = 0.I;
assume
A4: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 iff z`1 = 0.I;
A5: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 implies z in M1
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M2;
then z`1 = 0.I by A4;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 implies z in M2
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M1;
then z`1 = 0.I by A3;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
hence thesis by A5,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func q1.I -> Element of Quot.I means
:Def9:
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in it iff z`1 = z`2;
existence
proof
1_I <> 0.I;
then reconsider t = [1_I,1_I] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
set M = QClass.t;
A1: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M implies z`1 = z`2
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M;
then
A2: z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
z`1 = z`1 * 1_I
.= z`2 * t`1 by A2
.= z`2 * 1_I
.= z`2;
hence thesis;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z`1 = z`2 implies z in M
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z`1 = z`2;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * 1_I
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A3: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 iff z`1 = z`2;
assume
A4: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 iff z`1 = z`2;
A5: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 implies z in M1
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M2;
then z`1 = z`2 by A4;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 implies z in M2
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M1;
then z`1 = z`2 by A3;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
hence thesis by A5,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
func qaddinv(u) -> Element of Quot.I means
:Def10:
for z being Element of Q.
I holds z in it iff ex a being Element of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(
a`1));
existence
proof
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: u = QClass.x by Def5;
x`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then reconsider t = [(-(x`1)), x`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
set M = QClass.t;
A2: for z being Element of Q.I holds (ex a being Element of Q.I st (a in u
& z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(a`1)))) implies z in M
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
given a being Element of Q.I such that
A3: a in u and
A4: z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(a`1));
A5: a`1 * x`2 = a`2 * x`1 by A1,A3,Def4;
A6: (z`1 * x`2) * a`2 = (z`2 * (-(a`1))) * x`2 by A4,GROUP_1:def 3
.= (-(z`2 * a`1)) * x`2 by GCD_1:48
.= ((-(z`2)) * a`1) * x`2 by GCD_1:48
.= (-(z`2)) * (a`2 * x`1) by A5,GROUP_1:def 3
.= ((-(z`2)) * x`1) * a`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (-(z`2 * x`1)) * a`2 by GCD_1:48
.= (z`2 * (-(x`1))) * a`2 by GCD_1:48;
A7: a`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
a`2 divides a`2;
then
A8: a`2 divides (z`2 * (-(x`1))) * a`2 by GCD_1:7;
a`2 divides a`2;
then
A9: a`2 divides (z`1 * x`2) * a`2 by GCD_1:7;
z`1 * t`2 = z`1 * x`2
.= (z`1 * x`2) * 1_I
.= (z`1 * x`2) * (a`2/a`2) by A7,GCD_1:9
.= ((z`2 * (-(x`1))) * a`2) / a`2 by A7,A6,A9,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * (-(x`1))) * (a`2/a`2) by A7,A8,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * (-(x`1))) * 1_I by A7,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * (-(x`1))
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M implies ex a being Element of
Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(a`1))
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
then z`1 * x`2 = z`2 * t`1
.= z`2 * (-(x`1));
hence thesis by A1,Th5;
end;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A10: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 iff ex a being Element
of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(a`1));
assume
A11: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 iff ex a being Element
of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(a`1));
A12: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 implies z in M1
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M2;
then
ex a being Element of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(a`1)) by A11;
hence thesis by A10;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 implies z in M2
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M1;
then
ex a being Element of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`2 = z`2 * (-(a`1)) by A10;
hence thesis by A11;
end;
hence thesis by A12,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A1: u <> q0.I;
func qmultinv(u) -> Element of Quot.I means
:Def11:
for z being Element of
Q.I holds z in it iff ex a being Element of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a
`2;
existence
proof
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A2: u = QClass.x by Def5;
x`1 <> 0.I
proof
assume x`1 = 0.I;
then
A3: x in q0.I by Def8;
x in u by A2,Th5;
then u meets q0.I by A3,XBOOLE_0:3;
hence contradiction by A1,Th8;
end;
then reconsider t = [x`2,x`1] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
set M = QClass.t;
A4: for z being Element of Q.I holds (ex a being Element of Q.I st (a in
u & z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a`2)) implies z in M
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
given a being Element of Q.I such that
A5: a in u and
A6: z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a`2;
A7: a`1 * x`2 = a`2 * x`1 by A2,A5,Def4;
A8: (z`1 * t`2) * a`2 = (z`1 * x`1) * a`2
.= z`1 * (a`1 * x`2) by A7,GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * a`2) * x`2 by A6,GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * a`2) * t`1
.= (z`2 * t`1) * a`2 by GROUP_1:def 3;
A9: a`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
a`2 divides a`2;
then
A10: a`2 divides (z`2 * t`1) * a`2 by GCD_1:7;
a`2 divides a`2;
then
A11: a`2 divides (z`1 * t`2) * a`2 by GCD_1:7;
z`1 * t`2 = (z`1 * t`2) * 1_I
.= (z`1 * t`2) * (a`2/a`2) by A9,GCD_1:9
.= ((z`2 * t`1) * a`2) / a`2 by A9,A8,A11,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * t`1) * (a`2/a`2) by A9,A10,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * t`1) * 1_I by A9,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M implies ex a being Element of
Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a`2
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
then z`1 * x`1 = z`2 * t`1
.= z`2 * x`2;
hence thesis by A2,Th5;
end;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let M1,M2 be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A12: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 iff ex a being Element
of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a`2;
assume
A13: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 iff ex a being Element
of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a`2;
A14: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M2 implies z in M1
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M2;
then
ex a being Element of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a`2 by A13;
hence thesis by A12;
end;
for z being Element of Q.I holds z in M1 implies z in M2
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in M1;
then
ex a being Element of Q.I st a in u & z`1 * a`1 = z`2 * a`2 by A12;
hence thesis by A13;
end;
hence thesis by A14,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
end;
theorem Th11:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds qadd(u,qadd(v,w)) = qadd(qadd(u,v),w) & qadd(
u,v) = qadd(v,u)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: u = QClass.x by Def5;
consider z being Element of Q.I such that
A2: w = QClass.z by Def5;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A3: v = QClass.y by Def5;
A4: qadd(u,v) = QClass.(padd(x,y)) by A1,A3,Th9
.= qadd(v,u) by A1,A3,Th9;
qadd(u,qadd(v,w)) = qadd(QClass.x,QClass.(padd(y,z))) by A1,A3,A2,Th9
.= QClass.(padd(x,padd(y,z))) by Th9
.= QClass.(padd(padd(x,y),z)) by Th3
.= qadd(QClass.(padd(x,y)),QClass.z) by Th9
.= qadd(qadd(u,v),w) by A1,A3,A2,Th9;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
theorem Th12:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I holds qadd(u,q0.I) = u & qadd(q0.I,u) = u
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: q0.I = QClass.x by Def5;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A2: u = QClass.y by Def5;
A3: x`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by A3,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider t = [y`1 * x`2 + x`1 * y`2, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by
Def1;
x in q0.I by A1,Th5;
then
A4: x`1 = 0.I by Def8;
A5: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.y implies z in QClass.t
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in QClass.y;
then
A6: z`1 * y`2 = z`2 * y`1 by Def4;
z`1 * t`2 = z`1 * (x`2 * y`2)
.= (z`2 * y`1) * x`2 by A6,GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (y`1 * x`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (y`1 * x`2 + 0.I) by RLVECT_1:4
.= z`2 * (y`1 * x`2 + x`1 * y`2) by A4
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
A7: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.t implies z in QClass.y
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
x`2 divides x`2;
then
A8: x`2 divides (z`1 * y`2) * x`2 by GCD_1:7;
x`2 divides x`2;
then
A9: x`2 divides (z`2 * y`1) * x`2 by GCD_1:7;
assume z in QClass.t;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
then
A10: z`1 * (x`2 * y`2) = z`2 * t`1;
A11: (z`1 * y`2) * x`2 = z`1 * (x`2 * y`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (y`1 * x`2 + 0.I * y`2) by A4,A10
.= z`2 * (y`1 * x`2 + 0.I)
.= z`2 * (y`1 * x`2) by RLVECT_1:4
.= (z`2 * y`1) * x`2 by GROUP_1:def 3;
z`1 * y`2 = (z`1 * y`2) * 1_I
.= (z`1 * y`2) * (x`2/x`2) by A3,GCD_1:9
.= ((z`2 * y`1) * x`2) / x`2 by A3,A11,A8,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * y`1) * (x`2/x`2) by A3,A9,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * y`1) * 1_I by A3,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * y`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
qadd(u,q0.I) = QClass.(padd(y,x)) & qadd(q0.I,u) = QClass.(padd(x,y))
by A1,A2,Th9;
hence thesis by A2,A5,A7,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
theorem Th13:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds qmult(u,qmult(v,w)) = qmult(qmult(u,v),w) &
qmult(u,v) = qmult(v,u)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: u = QClass.x by Def5;
consider z being Element of Q.I such that
A2: w = QClass.z by Def5;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A3: v = QClass.y by Def5;
A4: qmult(u,v) = QClass.(pmult(x,y)) by A1,A3,Th10
.= qmult(v,u) by A1,A3,Th10;
qmult(u,qmult(v,w)) = qmult(QClass.x,QClass.(pmult(y,z))) by A1,A3,A2,Th10
.= QClass.(pmult(x,pmult(y,z))) by Th10
.= QClass.(pmult(pmult(x,y),z)) by Th4
.= qmult(QClass.(pmult(x,y)),QClass.z) by Th10
.= qmult(qmult(u,v),w) by A1,A3,A2,Th10;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
theorem Th14:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I holds qmult(u,q1.I) = u & qmult(q1.I,u) = u
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: q1.I = QClass.x by Def5;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A2: u = QClass.y by Def5;
A3: x`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by A3,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider t = [x`1 * y`1, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
x in q1.I by A1,Th5;
then
A4: x`1 = x`2 by Def9;
A5: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.y implies z in QClass.t
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in QClass.y;
then
A6: z`1 * y`2 = z`2 * y`1 by Def4;
z`1 * t`2 = z`1 * (x`2 * y`2)
.= (z`2 * y`1) * x`2 by A6,GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`1 * y`1) by A4,GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
A7: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.t implies z in QClass.y
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
x`2 divides x`2;
then
A8: x`2 divides (z`1 * y`2) * x`2 by GCD_1:7;
x`2 divides x`2;
then
A9: x`2 divides (z`2 * y`1) * x`2 by GCD_1:7;
assume z in QClass.t;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
then
A10: z`1 * (x`2 * y`2) = z`2 * t`1;
A11: (z`1 * y`2) * x`2 = z`1 * (x`2 * y`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`2 * y`1) by A4,A10
.= (z`2 * y`1) * x`2 by GROUP_1:def 3;
z`1 * y`2 = (z`1 * y`2) * 1_I
.= (z`1 * y`2) * (x`2/x`2) by A3,GCD_1:9
.= ((z`2 * y`1) * x`2) / x`2 by A3,A11,A8,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * y`1) * (x`2/x`2) by A3,A9,GCD_1:11
.= (z`2 * y`1) * 1_I by A3,GCD_1:9
.= z`2 * y`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
qmult(u,q1.I) = QClass.(pmult(y,x)) & qmult(q1.I,u) = QClass.(pmult(x,y
)) by A1,A2,Th10;
hence thesis by A2,A5,A7,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
theorem Th15:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds qmult(qadd(u,v),w) = qadd(qmult(u,w),qmult(v,
w))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: u = QClass.x by Def5;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A2: v = QClass.y by Def5;
consider z being Element of Q.I such that
A3: w = QClass.z by Def5;
A4: qmult(qadd(u,v),w) = qmult(QClass.(padd(x,y)),QClass.z) by A1,A2,A3,Th9
.= QClass.(pmult(padd(x,y),z)) by Th10;
A5: z`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
A6: y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A7: y`2 * z`2 <> 0.I by A5,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s2 = [y`1 * z`1, y`2 * z`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
A8: x`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A9: x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by A6,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s = [x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by
Def1;
A10: x`2 * z`2 <> 0.I by A8,A5,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s1 = [x`1 * z`1, x`2 * z`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
(x`2 * z`2) * (y`2 * z`2) <> 0.I by A7,A10,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider
s3 = [(x`1 * z`1) * (y`2 * z`2) + (y`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * z`2), (x`2
* z`2) * (y`2 * z`2)] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
(x`2 * y`2) * z`2 <> 0.I by A5,A9,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider
r = [(x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2) * z`1, (x`2 * y`2) * z`2] as Element
of Q.I by Def1;
A11: for t being Element of Q.I holds t in QClass.(padd(pmult(x,z),pmult(y,z
))) implies t in QClass.(pmult(padd(x,y),z))
proof
let t be Element of Q.I;
assume t in QClass.(padd(pmult(x,z),pmult(y,z)));
then t`1 * s3`2 = t`2 * s3`1 by Def4;
then t`1 * ((x`2 * z`2) * (y`2 * z`2)) = t`2 * s3`1;
then
A12: t`1 * ((x`2 * z`2) * (y`2 * z`2)) = t`2 * ((x`1 * z`1) * (y`2 * z`2)
+ (y`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * z`2));
(t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * z`2)) * z`2 = t`1 * (((x`2 * y`2) * z`2) * z`2)
by GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`1 * ((x`2 * (y`2 * z`2)) * z`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * z`1) * (y`2 * z`2) + (y`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * z`2)) by A12,
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * z`1) * y`2) * z`2 + (y`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * z`2)) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * z`1) * y`2) * z`2 + ((y`1 * z`1) * x`2) * z`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((((x`1 * z`1) * y`2) + ((y`1 * z`1) * x`2)) * z`2) by
VECTSP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((z`1 * (x`1 * y`2)) + ((y`1 * z`1) * x`2)) * z`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((z`1 * (x`1 * y`2)) + (z`1 * (y`1 * x`2))) * z`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((z`1 * ((x`1 * y`2) + (y`1 * x`2))) * z`2) by VECTSP_1:def 2
.= (t`2 * ((x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2) * z`1)) * z`2 by GROUP_1:def 3;
then t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * z`2) = t`2 * ((x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2) * z`1) by
A5,GCD_1:1;
then t`1 * r`2 = t`2 * ((x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2) * z`1)
.= t`2 * r`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
A13: for t being Element of Q.I holds t in QClass.(pmult(padd(x,y),z))
implies t in QClass.(padd(pmult(x,z),pmult(y,z)))
proof
let t be Element of Q.I;
assume t in QClass.(pmult(padd(x,y),z));
then t`1 * r`2 = t`2 * r`1 by Def4;
then t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * z`2) = t`2 * r`1;
then
A14: t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * z`2) = t`2 * ((x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2) * z`1);
t`1 * s3`2 = t`1 * ((x`2 * z`2) * (y`2 * z`2))
.= t`1 * (((x`2 * z`2) * y`2) * z`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (t`1 * ((x`2 * z`2) * y`2)) * z`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * z`2)) * z`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * y`2 + y`1 * x`2) * z`1) * z`2) by A14,GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * y`2) * z`1 + (y`1 * x`2) * z`1) * z`2) by
VECTSP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * y`2) * z`1) * z`2 + ((y`1 * x`2) * z`1) * z`2) by
VECTSP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((y`2 * (x`1 * z`1)) * z`2 + ((y`1 * x`2) * z`1) * z`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * z`1) * (y`2 * z`2) + ((y`1 * x`2) * z`1) * z`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * z`1) * (y`2 * z`2)) + ((y`1 * z`1) * x`2) * z`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * z`1) * (y`2 * z`2) + (y`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * z`2)) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * s3`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
qadd(qmult(u,w),qmult(v,w)) = qadd(QClass.(pmult(x,z)),qmult(QClass.y,
QClass.z)) by A1,A2,A3,Th10
.= qadd(QClass.(pmult(x,z)),QClass.(pmult(y,z))) by Th10
.= QClass.(padd(pmult(x,z),pmult(y,z))) by Th9;
hence thesis by A4,A13,A11,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
theorem Th16:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds qmult(u,qadd(v,w)) = qadd(qmult(u,v),qmult(u,
w))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: u = QClass.x by Def5;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A2: v = QClass.y by Def5;
consider z being Element of Q.I such that
A3: w = QClass.z by Def5;
A4: x`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
A5: z`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A6: x`2 * z`2 <> 0.I by A4,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s2 = [x`1 * z`1, x`2 * z`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
A7: y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A8: y`2 * z`2 <> 0.I by A5,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s = [y`1 * z`2 + z`1 * y`2, y`2 * z`2] as Element of Q.I by
Def1;
A9: x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by A4,A7,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider s1 = [x`1 * y`1, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
(x`2 * y`2) * (x`2 * z`2) <> 0.I by A9,A6,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider
s3 = [(x`1 * y`1) * (x`2 * z`2) + (x`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * y`2), (x`2
* y`2) * (x`2 * z`2)] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
x`2 * (y`2 * z`2) <> 0.I by A4,A8,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider
r = [x`1 * (y`1 * z`2 + z`1 * y`2), x`2 * (y`2 * z`2)] as Element
of Q.I by Def1;
A10: for t being Element of Q.I holds t in QClass.(padd(pmult(x,y),pmult(x,z
))) implies t in QClass.(pmult(x,padd(y,z)))
proof
let t be Element of Q.I;
assume t in QClass.(padd(pmult(x,y),pmult(x,z)));
then t`1 * s3`2 = t`2 * s3`1 by Def4;
then t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * (x`2 * z`2)) = t`2 * s3`1;
then
A11: t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * (x`2 * z`2)) = t`2 * ((x`1 * y`1) * (x`2 * z`2)
+ (x`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * y`2));
(t`1 * (x`2 * (y`2 * z`2))) * x`2 = (t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * z`2)) * x`2
by GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`1 * (((x`2 * y`2) * z`2) * x`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * y`1) * (x`2 * z`2) + (x`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * y`2)) by A11,
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * y`1) * z`2) * x`2 + (x`1 * z`1) * (x`2 * y`2)) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * y`1) * z`2) * x`2 + ((x`1 * z`1) * y`2) * x`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((((x`1 * y`1) * z`2) + ((x`1 * z`1) * y`2)) * x`2) by
VECTSP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * (y`1 * z`2)) + ((x`1 * z`1) * y`2)) * x`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * (y`1 * z`2)) + (x`1 * (z`1 * y`2))) * x`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * ((y`1 * z`2) + (z`1 * y`2))) * x`2) by VECTSP_1:def 2
.= (t`2 * (x`1 * ((y`1 * z`2) + (z`1 * y`2)))) * x`2 by GROUP_1:def 3;
then
t`1 * (x`2 * (y`2 * z`2)) = t`2 * (x`1 * ((y`1 * z`2) + (z`1 * y`2)))
by A4,GCD_1:1;
then t`1 * r`2 = t`2 * (x`1 * ((y`1 * z`2) + (z`1 * y`2)))
.= t`2 * r`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
A12: for t being Element of Q.I holds t in QClass.(pmult(x,padd(y,z)))
implies t in QClass.(padd(pmult(x,y),pmult(x,z)))
proof
let t be Element of Q.I;
assume t in QClass.(pmult(x,padd(y,z)));
then t`1 * r`2 = t`2 * r`1 by Def4;
then t`1 * (x`2 * (y`2 * z`2)) = t`2 * r`1;
then
A13: t`1 * (x`2 * (y`2 * z`2)) = t`2 * (x`1 * (y`1 * z`2 + z`1 * y`2));
t`1 * s3`2 = t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * (x`2 * z`2))
.= t`1 * (((x`2 * y`2) * z`2) * x`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (t`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * z`2)) * x`2 by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (t`2 * (x`1 * (y`1 * z`2 + z`1 * y`2))) * x`2 by A13,GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * (y`1 * z`2 + z`1 * y`2)) * x`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * (y`1 * z`2) + x`1 * (z`1 * y`2)) * x`2) by
VECTSP_1:def 2
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * (y`1 * z`2)) * x`2 + (x`1 * (z`1 * y`2)) * x`2) by
VECTSP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((((x`1 * y`1) * z`2) * x`2) + (x`1 * (z`1 * y`2)) * x`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * y`1) * (z`2 * x`2)) + (x`1 * (z`1 * y`2)) * x`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * (((x`1 * y`1) * (z`2 * x`2)) + ((x`1 * z`1) * y`2) * x`2) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * ((x`1 * y`1) * (z`2 * x`2) + (x`1 * z`1) * (y`2 * x`2)) by
GROUP_1:def 3
.= t`2 * s3`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
A14: qmult(u,qadd(v,w)) = qmult(QClass.x,QClass.(padd(y,z))) by A1,A2,A3,Th9
.= QClass.(pmult(x,padd(y,z))) by Th10;
qadd(qmult(u,v),qmult(u,w)) = qadd(QClass.(pmult(x,y)),qmult(QClass.x,
QClass.z)) by A1,A2,A3,Th10
.= qadd(QClass.(pmult(x,y)),QClass.(pmult(x,z))) by Th10
.= QClass.(padd(pmult(x,y),pmult(x,z))) by Th9;
hence thesis by A14,A12,A10,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
theorem Th17:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I holds qadd(u,qaddinv(u)) = q0.I & qadd(qaddinv(u),u) =
q0.I
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A1: qaddinv(u) = QClass.x by Def5;
x in qaddinv(u) by A1,Th5;
then consider a being Element of Q.I such that
A2: a in u and
A3: x`1 * a`2 = x`2 * (-(a`1)) by Def10;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A4: u = QClass.y by Def5;
x`2 <> 0.I & y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider t = [y`1 * x`2 + x`1 * y`2, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by
Def1;
A5: a`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
y in u by A4,Th5;
then
A6: y`1 * a`2 = a`1 * y`2 by A2,Th7;
t`1 * a`2 = (y`1 * x`2 + x`1 * y`2) * a`2
.= (y`1 * x`2) * a`2 + (x`1 * y`2) * a`2 by VECTSP_1:def 3
.= x`2 * (a`1 * y`2) + (x`1 * y`2) * a`2 by A6,GROUP_1:def 3
.= x`2 * (a`1 * y`2) + (x`2 * (-(a`1))) * y`2 by A3,GROUP_1:def 3
.= x`2 * (a`1 * y`2) + (-(x`2 * a`1)) * y`2 by GCD_1:48
.= x`2 * (a`1 * y`2) + (-(x`2 * a`1) * y`2) by GCD_1:48
.= (x`2 * a`1) * y`2 + (-(x`2 * a`1 * y`2)) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= 0.I by RLVECT_1:def 10;
then
A7: t`1 = 0.I by A5,VECTSP_2:def 1;
A8: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in q0.I implies z in QClass.t
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in q0.I;
then z`1 = 0.I by Def8;
then
A9: z`1 * t`2 = 0.I;
z`2 * t`1 = 0.I by A7;
hence thesis by A9,Def4;
end;
A10: t`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
A11: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.t implies z in q0.I
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in QClass.t;
then
A12: z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
z`2 * t`1 = 0.I by A7;
then z`1 = 0.I by A10,A12,VECTSP_2:def 1;
hence thesis by Def8;
end;
qadd(u,qaddinv(u)) = QClass.(padd(y,x)) & qadd(qaddinv(u),u) = QClass.(
padd( x,y)) by A1,A4,Th9;
hence thesis by A11,A8,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
theorem Th18:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I st u <> q0.I holds qmult(u,qmultinv(u)) = q1.I & qmult(
qmultinv(u),u) = q1.I
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A1: u <> q0.I;
consider x being Element of Q.I such that
A2: qmultinv(u) = QClass.x by Def5;
consider y being Element of Q.I such that
A3: u = QClass.y by Def5;
x`2 <> 0.I & y`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A4: x`2 * y`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider t = [x`1 * y`1, x`2 * y`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
x in qmultinv(u) by A2,Th5;
then consider a being Element of Q.I such that
A5: a in u and
A6: x`1 * a`1 = x`2 * a`2 by A1,Def11;
y in u by A3,Th5;
then
A7: y`1 * a`2 = a`1 * y`2 by A5,Th7;
A8: a`1 <> 0.I
proof
assume a`1 = 0.I;
then a in q0.I by Def8;
then a in q0.I /\ u by A5,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then q0.I meets u;
hence contradiction by A1,Th8;
end;
A9: a`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
A10: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in q1.I implies z in QClass.t
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in q1.I;
then z`1 = z`2 by Def9;
then
A11: (z`1 * t`2) * (a`1 * a`2) = (z`2 * (x`2 * y`2)) * (a`1 * a`2)
.= z`2 * ((x`2 * y`2) * (a`1 * a`2)) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`2 * (y`2 * (a`1 * a`2))) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`2 * ((y`1 * a`2) * a`2)) by A7,GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * ((x`1 * a`1) * (y`1 * a`2)) by A6,GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`1 * (a`1 * (y`1 * a`2))) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`1 * (y`1 * (a`1 * a`2))) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * ((x`1 * y`1) * (a`1 * a`2)) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * (x`1 * y`1)) * (a`1 * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * t`1) * (a`1 * a`2);
a`1 * a`2 <> 0.I by A8,A9,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by A11,GCD_1:1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
A12: for z being Element of Q.I holds z in QClass.t implies z in q1.I
proof
let z be Element of Q.I;
assume z in QClass.t;
then
A13: z`1 * t`2 = z`2 * t`1 by Def4;
a`2 * a`1 <> 0.I by A8,A9,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then
A14: (x`2 * y`2) * (a`2 * a`1) <> 0.I by A4,VECTSP_2:def 1;
z`1 * ((x`2 * y`2) * (a`1 * a`2)) = (z`1 * (x`2 * y`2)) * (a`1 * a`2)
by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (z`2 * t`1) * (a`1 * a`2) by A13
.= (z`2 * (x`1 * y`1)) * (a`1 * a`2)
.= z`2 * ((x`1 * y`1) * (a`1 * a`2)) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (((y`1 * x`1) * a`1) * a`2) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * ((y`1 * (x`2 * a`2)) * a`2) by A6,GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * ((x`2 * a`2) * (a`1 * y`2)) by A7,GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`2 * (a`2 * (a`1 * y`2))) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * (x`2 * (y`2 * (a`2 * a`1))) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= z`2 * ((x`2 * y`2) * (a`2 * a`1)) by GROUP_1:def 3;
then z`1 = z`2 by A14,GCD_1:1;
hence thesis by Def9;
end;
qmult(u,qmultinv(u)) = QClass.(pmult(y,x)) & qmult(qmultinv(u),u) =
QClass.( pmult(x,y)) by A2,A3,Th10;
hence thesis by A12,A10,SUBSET_1:3;
end;
theorem Th19:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds q1.I <> q0.I
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
reconsider t = [0.I,1_I] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
assume
A1: q1.I = q0.I;
t`1 = 0.I;
then t in q0.I by Def8;
then t`1 = t`2 by A1,Def9;
hence contradiction;
end;
:: Redefinition of the Operations' Types
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func quotadd(I) -> BinOp of Quot.I means
:Def12:
for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds it.(u,v) = qadd(u,v);
existence
proof
deffunc O(Element of Quot.I,Element of Quot.I) = qadd($1,$2);
consider F being BinOp of Quot.I such that
A1: for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds F.(u,v) = O(u,v) from
BINOP_1:sch 4;
take F;
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let F1,F2 be BinOp of Quot.I such that
A2: for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds F1.(u,v) = qadd(u,v) and
A3: for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds F2.(u,v) = qadd(u,v);
now
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
thus F1.(u,v) = qadd(u,v) by A2
.= F2.(u,v) by A3;
end;
hence thesis by BINOP_1:2;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func quotmult(I) -> BinOp of Quot.I means
:Def13:
for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds it.(u,v) = qmult(u,v);
existence
proof
deffunc O(Element of Quot.I,Element of Quot.I) = qmult($1,$2);
consider F being BinOp of Quot.I such that
A1: for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds F.(u,v) = O(u,v) from
BINOP_1:sch 4;
take F;
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let F1,F2 be BinOp of Quot.I such that
A2: for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds F1.(u,v) = qmult(u,v) and
A3: for u,v being Element of Quot.I holds F2.(u,v) = qmult(u,v);
now
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
thus F1.(u,v) = qmult(u,v) by A2
.= F2.(u,v) by A3;
end;
hence thesis by BINOP_1:2;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func quotaddinv(I) -> UnOp of Quot.I means
:Def14:
for u being Element of Quot.I holds it.(u) = qaddinv(u);
existence
proof
deffunc O(Element of Quot.I) = qaddinv($1);
consider F being UnOp of Quot.I such that
A1: for u being Element of Quot.I holds F.(u) = O(u) from FUNCT_2:sch
4;
take F;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let F1,F2 be UnOp of Quot.I such that
A2: for u being Element of Quot.I holds F1.(u) = qaddinv(u) and
A3: for u being Element of Quot.I holds F2.(u) = qaddinv(u);
now
let u be Element of Quot.I;
for u being object st u in Quot.I holds F1.(u) = F2.(u)
proof
let u be object;
assume u in Quot.I;
then reconsider u as Element of Quot.I;
F1.(u) = qaddinv(u) by A2
.= F2.(u) by A3;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func quotmultinv(I) -> UnOp of Quot.I means
:Def15:
for u being Element of Quot.I holds it.(u) = qmultinv(u);
existence
proof
deffunc O(Element of Quot.I) = qmultinv($1);
consider F being UnOp of Quot.I such that
A1: for u being Element of Quot.I holds F.(u) = O(u) from FUNCT_2:sch
4;
take F;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let F1,F2 be UnOp of Quot.I such that
A2: for u being Element of Quot.I holds F1.(u) = qmultinv(u) and
A3: for u being Element of Quot.I holds F2.(u) = qmultinv(u);
now
let u be Element of Quot.I;
for u being object st u in Quot.I holds F1.(u) = F2.(u)
proof
let u be object;
assume u in Quot.I;
then reconsider u as Element of Quot.I;
F1.(u) = qmultinv(u) by A2
.= F2.(u) by A3;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem Th20:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds (quotadd(I)).((quotadd(I)).(u,v),w) = (
quotadd(I)).(u,(quotadd(I)).(v,w))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
(quotadd(I)).((quotadd(I)).(u,v),w) = (quotadd(I)).(qadd(u,v),w) by Def12
.= qadd(qadd(u,v),w) by Def12
.= qadd(u,qadd(v,w)) by Th11
.= qadd(u,(quotadd(I)).(v,w)) by Def12
.= (quotadd(I)).(u,(quotadd(I)).(v,w)) by Def12;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th21:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v being Element of Quot.I holds (quotadd(I)).(u,v) = (quotadd(I)).(v,u)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
(quotadd(I)).(u,v) = qadd(u,v) by Def12
.= qadd(v,u) by Th11
.= (quotadd(I)).(v,u) by Def12;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th22:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I holds (quotadd(I)).(u,q0.I) = u & (quotadd(I)).(q0.I,u)
= u
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
A1: (quotadd(I)).(q0.I,u) = qadd(q0.I,u) by Def12
.= u by Th12;
(quotadd(I)).(u,q0.I) = qadd(u,q0.I) by Def12
.= u by Th12;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Th23:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds (quotmult(I)).((quotmult(I)).(u,v),w) = (
quotmult(I)).(u,(quotmult(I)).(v,w))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
(quotmult(I)).((quotmult(I)).(u,v),w) = (quotmult(I)).(qmult(u,v),w) by Def13
.= qmult(qmult(u,v),w) by Def13
.= qmult(u,qmult(v,w)) by Th13
.= qmult(u,(quotmult(I)).(v,w)) by Def13
.= (quotmult(I)).(u,(quotmult(I)).(v,w)) by Def13;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th24:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v being Element of Quot.I holds (quotmult(I)).(u,v)=(quotmult(I)).(v,u)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of Quot.I;
(quotmult(I)).(u,v) = qmult(u,v) by Def13
.= qmult(v,u) by Th13
.= (quotmult(I)).(v,u) by Def13;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th25:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I holds (quotmult(I)).(u,q1.I) = u & (quotmult(I)).(q1.I,
u) = u
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
A1: (quotmult(I)).(q1.I,u) = qmult(q1.I,u) by Def13
.= u by Th14;
(quotmult(I)).(u,q1.I) = qmult(u,q1.I) by Def13
.= u by Th14;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Th26:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds (quotmult(I)).((quotadd(I)).(u,v),w) = (
quotadd(I)).((quotmult(I)).(u,w),(quotmult(I)).(v,w))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
(quotmult(I)).((quotadd(I)).(u,v),w) = (quotmult(I)).(qadd(u,v),w) by Def12
.= qmult(qadd(u,v),w) by Def13
.= qadd(qmult(u,w),qmult(v,w)) by Th15
.= qadd((quotmult(I)).(u,w),qmult(v,w)) by Def13
.= qadd((quotmult(I)).(u,w),(quotmult(I)).(v,w)) by Def13
.= (quotadd(I)).((quotmult(I)).(u,w),(quotmult(I)).(v,w)) by Def12;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th27:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,
v,w being Element of Quot.I holds (quotmult(I)).(u,(quotadd(I)).(v,w)) = (
quotadd(I)).((quotmult(I)).(u,v),(quotmult(I)).(u,w))
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v,w be Element of Quot.I;
(quotmult(I)).(u,(quotadd(I)).(v,w)) = (quotmult(I)).(u,qadd(v,w)) by Def12
.= qmult(u,qadd(v,w)) by Def13
.= qadd(qmult(u,v),qmult(u,w)) by Th16
.= qadd((quotmult(I)).(u,v),qmult(u,w)) by Def13
.= qadd((quotmult(I)).(u,v),(quotmult(I)).(u,w)) by Def13
.= (quotadd(I)).((quotmult(I)).(u,v),(quotmult(I)).(u,w)) by Def12;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th28:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I holds (quotadd(I)).(u,(quotaddinv(I)).(u)) = q0.I & (
quotadd(I)).((quotaddinv(I)).(u),u) = q0.I
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
A1: (quotadd(I)).((quotaddinv(I)).(u),u) = (quotadd(I)).(qaddinv(u),u) by Def14
.= qadd(qaddinv(u),u) by Def12
.= q0.I by Th17;
(quotadd(I)).(u,(quotaddinv(I)).(u)) = (quotadd(I)).(u,qaddinv(u)) by Def14
.= qadd(u,qaddinv(u)) by Def12
.= q0.I by Th17;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Th29:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of Quot.I st u <> q0.I holds (quotmult(I)).(u,(quotmultinv(I)).(u
)) = q1.I & (quotmult(I)).((quotmultinv(I)).(u),u) = q1.I
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of Quot.I;
assume
A1: u <> q0.I;
A2: (quotmult(I)).((quotmultinv(I)).(u),u) = (quotmult(I)).(qmultinv(u),u)
by Def15
.= qmult(qmultinv(u),u) by Def13
.= q1.I by A1,Th18;
(quotmult(I)).(u,(quotmultinv(I)).(u)) = (quotmult(I)).(u,qmultinv(u))
by Def15
.= qmult(u,qmultinv(u)) by Def13
.= q1.I by A1,Th18;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
begin :: Definition of Quotient Field
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func the_Field_of_Quotients(I) -> strict doubleLoopStr equals
doubleLoopStr
(# Quot.I,quotadd(I),quotmult(I),q1.I,q0.I #);
correctness;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
cluster the_Field_of_Quotients(I) -> non empty;
coherence;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds the
carrier of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = Quot.I & the addF of
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = quotadd(I) & the multF of the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
= quotmult(I) & 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = q0.I & 1.the_Field_of_Quotients(I
) = q1.I;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds (quotadd(I)).(u,v) is Element
of the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider s = u, t = v as Element of Quot.I;
(quotadd(I)).(u,v) = qadd(s,t) by Def12;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th32:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds (quotaddinv(I)).(u) is Element
of the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider s = u as Element of Quot.I;
(quotaddinv(I)).(u) = qaddinv(s) by Def14;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds (quotmult(I)).(u,v) is Element
of the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u,v be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider s = u as Element of Quot.I;
reconsider t = v as Element of Quot.I;
(quotmult(I)).(u,v) = qmult(s,t) by Def13;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u being
Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds (quotmultinv(I)).(u) is Element of
the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider s = u as Element of Quot.I;
(quotmultinv(I)).(u) = qmultinv(s) by Def15;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds u + v = (quotadd(I)).(u,v);
Lm1: for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) is add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
A1: the_Field_of_Quotients(I) is right_complementable
proof
let v be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider m = v as Element of Quot.I;
reconsider n = (quotaddinv(I)).m as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
take n;
thus thesis by Th28;
end;
( for u,v,w being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
holds (u + v) + w = u + (v + w))& for v being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients
(I) holds v + 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = v by Th20,Th22;
hence thesis by A1,RLVECT_1:def 3,def 4;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
cluster the_Field_of_Quotients(I) -> add-associative right_zeroed
right_complementable;
coherence by Lm1;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u being
Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds -u = (quotaddinv(I)).(u)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider z = (quotaddinv(I)).u as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by
Th32;
z + u = 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by Th28;
hence thesis by RLVECT_1:6;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds u * v = (quotmult(I)).(u,v);
Lm2: for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) is commutative non empty doubleLoopStr
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
for x,y being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds x * y = y * x
by Th24;
hence thesis by GROUP_1:def 12;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
cluster the_Field_of_Quotients(I) -> commutative;
coherence by Lm2;
end;
Lm3: for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) is well-unital
by Th25;
registration
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
cluster the_Field_of_Quotients(I) -> well-unital;
coherence by Lm3;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds 1.
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = q1.I & 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = q0.I;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v,w
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds (u + v) + w = u + (v + w)
by Th20;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds u + v = v + u by Th21;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u being
Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds u + 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = u
by Th22;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u being
Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds 1.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) * u = u;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds u * v = v * u;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u,v,w
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds (u * v) * w = u * (v * w)
by Th23;
theorem Th45:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for u
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) st u <> 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
ex v being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) st u * v = 1.
the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let u be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
assume
A1: u <> 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider u as Element of Quot.I;
reconsider v = (quotmultinv(I)).(u) as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider u as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
u * v = 1.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by A1,Th29;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th46:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) is add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable
Abelian associative unital distributive almost_left_invertible non degenerated
non empty doubleLoopStr
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
A1: the_Field_of_Quotients(I) is almost_left_invertible
proof
let x be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients I;
assume x <> 0.the_Field_of_Quotients I;
then consider y being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients I such that
A2: x * y = 1.the_Field_of_Quotients I by Th45;
take y;
thus y * x = 1.the_Field_of_Quotients I by A2;
end;
A3: q0.I <> q1.I & 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = q0.I by Th19;
A4: 1.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) = q1.I & for x,y,z being Element
of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds x * (y+z) = x*y + x*z & (y+z) * x =
y*x + z* x by Th26,Th27;
( for x,y,z being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
holds (x * y) * z = x * (y * z))& for u,v being Element of
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds u + v = v + u by Th21,Th23;
hence thesis by A1,A3,A4,GROUP_1:def 3,RLVECT_1:def 2,STRUCT_0:def 8
,VECTSP_1:def 7;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
cluster the_Field_of_Quotients(I) -> Abelian associative distributive
almost_left_invertible non degenerated;
coherence by Th46;
end;
theorem Th47:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring for x
being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) st x <> 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
for a being Element of I st a <> 0.I for u being Element of Q.I st x = QClass.u
& u = [a,1.I] for v being Element of Q.I st v = [1.I,a] holds x" = QClass.v
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
let x be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
assume
A1: x <> 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
let a be Element of I;
assume
A2: a <> 0.I;
then reconsider res = [a,a] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
A3: for u being object holds u in QClass.res implies u in q1.I
proof
let u be object;
assume
A4: u in QClass.res;
then reconsider u as Element of Q.I;
u`1 * a = u`1 * res`2
.= u`2 * res`1 by A4,Def4
.= u`2 * a;
then u`1 = u`2 by A2,GCD_1:1;
hence thesis by Def9;
end;
for u being object holds u in q1.I implies u in QClass.res
proof
let u be object;
assume
A5: u in q1.I;
then reconsider u as Element of Q.I;
u`1 * res`2 = u`1 * a
.= u`2 * a by A5,Def9
.= u`2 * res`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
then
A6: q1.I = QClass.res by A3,TARSKI:2;
let u be Element of Q.I;
assume that
A7: x = QClass.u and
A8: u = [a,1.I];
let v be Element of Q.I;
assume
A9: v = [1.I,a];
pmult(u,v) = [a * v`1, u`2 * v`2] by A8
.= [a * 1.I, u`2 * v`2] by A9
.= [a * 1.I, 1.I * v`2] by A8
.= [a * 1.I, 1.I * a] by A9
.= [a, 1.I * a]
.= [a, a];
then
A10: qmult(QClass.u,QClass.v) = 1.the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by A6,Th10;
reconsider y = QClass.v as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider y as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
qmult(QClass.u,QClass.v) = x * y by A7,Def13;
hence thesis by A1,A10,VECTSP_1:def 10;
end;
:: Field is Integral Domain
registration
cluster -> domRing-like right_unital for add-associative right_zeroed
right_complementable commutative associative well-unital distributive
almost_left_invertible non empty doubleLoopStr;
coherence
proof
let R be add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable commutative
associative well-unital distributive almost_left_invertible non empty
doubleLoopStr;
thus R is domRing-like
proof
let x,y be Element of R such that
A1: x*y = 0.R and
A2: x <> 0.R;
x*y = x*0.R by A1;
hence thesis by A2,VECTSP_1:5;
end;
let x be Element of R;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
registration
cluster add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian
commutative associative left_unital distributive almost_left_invertible non
degenerated for non empty doubleLoopStr;
existence
proof
set R = the add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian
commutative associative left_unital distributive almost_left_invertible non
degenerated non empty doubleLoopStr;
take R;
thus thesis;
end;
end;
definition
let F be commutative associative well-unital distributive
almost_left_invertible non empty doubleLoopStr;
let x, y be Element of F;
func x/y -> Element of F equals
x * y";
correctness;
end;
theorem Th48:
for F being non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative
Ring for a,b,c,d being Element of F st b <> 0.F & d <> 0.F holds (a/b) * (c/d)
= (a * c) / (b * d)
proof
let F be non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative Ring;
let a,b,c,d be Element of F;
assume
A1: b <> 0.F & d <> 0.F;
(a/b) * (c/d) = (a * (b" * (c * d"))) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (a * ((b" * d") * c)) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (a * c) * (b" * d") by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (a * c) / (d * b) by A1,GCD_1:49;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th49:
for F being non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative
Ring for a,b,c,d being Element of F st b <> 0.F & d <> 0.F holds (a/b) + (c/d)
= (a*d + c*b) / (b * d)
proof
let F be non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative Ring;
let a,b,c,d be Element of F;
assume that
A1: b <> 0.F and
A2: d <> 0.F;
(a*d + c*b) / (b * d) = (a*d + c*b) * (b" * d") by A1,A2,GCD_1:49
.= ((a*d + c*b) * b") * d" by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (((a*d) * b") + ((c*b) * b")) * d" by VECTSP_1:def 3
.= (((a*d) * b") + (c* (b*b"))) * d" by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (((a*d) * b") + (c*1.F)) * d" by A1,VECTSP_1:def 10
.= (((a*d) * b") + c) * d"
.= ((a*d) * b") * d" + c * d" by VECTSP_1:def 3
.= b" * ((a*d) * d") + c * d" by GROUP_1:def 3
.= b" * (a * (d*d")) + c * d" by GROUP_1:def 3
.= b" * (a * 1.F) + c * d" by A2,VECTSP_1:def 10
.= b" * a + c * d";
hence thesis;
end;
begin :: Definition of Ring Homomorphism
notation
let R,S be non empty doubleLoopStr;
let f be Function of R, S;
synonym f is RingHomomorphism for f is linear;
synonym f is RingEpimorphism for f is epimorphism;
synonym f is RingMonomorphism for f is monomorphism;
end;
notation
let R,S be non empty doubleLoopStr;
let f be Function of R, S;
synonym f is embedding for f is RingMonomorphism;
synonym f is RingIsomorphism for f is isomorphism;
end;
theorem Th50:
for R,S being Ring for f being Function of R, S st
f is RingHomomorphism holds f.(0.R) = 0.S
proof
let R,S be Ring;
let f be Function of R, S;
assume
A1: f is RingHomomorphism;
f.(0.R) = f.(0.R+0.R) by RLVECT_1:4
.= f.(0.R) + f.(0.R) by A1,VECTSP_1:def 20;
then 0.S = (f.(0.R) + f.(0.R)) + (-f.(0.R)) by RLVECT_1:def 10
.= f.(0.R) + (f.(0.R) + (-f.(0.R))) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= f.(0.R) + 0.S by RLVECT_1:def 10
.= f.(0.R) by RLVECT_1:4;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th51:
for R,S being Ring for f being Function of R, S st f is
RingMonomorphism for x being Element of R holds f.x = 0.S iff x = 0.R
proof
let R,S be Ring;
let f be Function of R, S;
assume
A1: f is RingMonomorphism;
then
A2: f is RingHomomorphism;
let x be Element of R;
A3: f is one-to-one by A1;
f.x = 0.S implies x = 0.R
proof
assume
A4: f.x = 0.S;
f.(0.R) = 0.S by A2,Th50;
hence thesis by A3,A4,FUNCT_2:19;
end;
hence thesis by A2,Th50;
end;
theorem Th52:
for R,S being non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative
Ring for f being Function of R, S st f is RingHomomorphism for x being Element
of R st x <> 0.R holds f.(x") = (f.x)"
proof
let R,S be non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative Ring;
let f be Function of R, S;
assume
A1: f is RingHomomorphism;
let x be Element of R;
assume
A2: x <> 0.R;
A3: f.x * f.(x") = f.(x"*x) by A1,GROUP_6:def 6
.= f.(1_R) by A2,VECTSP_1:def 10
.= 1_S by A1,GROUP_1:def 13;
then f.x <> 0.S;
hence thesis by A3,VECTSP_1:def 10;
end;
theorem Th53:
for R,S being non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative
Ring for f being Function of R, S st f is RingHomomorphism for x,y being
Element of R st y <> 0.R holds f.(x * y") = f.x * (f.y)"
proof
let R,S be non degenerated almost_left_invertible commutative Ring;
let f be Function of R, S;
assume
A1: f is RingHomomorphism;
let x,y be Element of R;
assume
A2: y <> 0.R;
thus f.(x * y") = f.x * f.(y") by A1,GROUP_6:def 6
.= f.x * (f.y)" by A1,A2,Th52;
end;
theorem Th54:
for R,S,T being Ring for f being Function of R, S st f is
RingHomomorphism for g being Function of S, T st g is RingHomomorphism holds g*
f is RingHomomorphism
proof
let R,S,T be Ring;
let f be Function of R, S;
assume
A1: f is RingHomomorphism;
let g be Function of S, T;
assume
A2: g is RingHomomorphism;
then
A3: for x,y being Element of S holds g.(x+y) = g.x + g.y & g.(x*y) = g.x * g
.y & g.(1_S) = 1_T by GROUP_1:def 13,GROUP_6:def 6,VECTSP_1:def 20;
A4: for x,y being Element of R holds (g*f).(x*y) = (g*f).x * (g*f).y
proof
let x,y be Element of R;
thus (g*f).(x*y) = g.(f.(x*y)) by FUNCT_2:15
.= g.(f.x*f.y) by A1,GROUP_6:def 6
.= g.(f.x)*g.(f.y) by A2,GROUP_6:def 6
.= (g*f).x*g.(f.y) by FUNCT_2:15
.= (g*f).x*(g*f).y by FUNCT_2:15;
end;
A5: for x,y being Element of R holds (g*f).(x+y) = (g*f).x + (g*f).y
proof
let x,y be Element of R;
thus (g*f).(x+y) = g.(f.(x+y)) by FUNCT_2:15
.= g.(f.x+f.y) by A1,VECTSP_1:def 20
.= g.(f.x)+g.(f.y) by A2,VECTSP_1:def 20
.= (g*f).x+g.(f.y) by FUNCT_2:15
.= (g*f).x+(g*f).y by FUNCT_2:15;
end;
for x,y being Element of R holds f.(x+y) = f.x + f.y & f.(x*y) = f.x * f
.y & f.(1_R) = 1_S by A1,GROUP_1:def 13,GROUP_6:def 6,VECTSP_1:def 20;
then
A6: (g*f).(1.R) = 1.T by A3,FUNCT_2:15;
1_R = 1.R & 1_T = 1.T;
then (g*f) is additive multiplicative unity-preserving by A6,A5,A4,
GROUP_1:def 13,GROUP_6:def 6;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for R being non empty doubleLoopStr holds id R is RingHomomorphism;
registration
let R be non empty doubleLoopStr;
cluster id R -> RingHomomorphism;
coherence;
end;
definition
::$CD 4
let R,S be non empty doubleLoopStr;
pred R is_embedded_in S means
ex f being Function of R, S st f is RingMonomorphism;
end;
definition
let R,S be non empty doubleLoopStr;
pred R is_ringisomorph_to S means
ex f being Function of R, S st f is RingIsomorphism;
symmetry
proof
let R,S be non empty doubleLoopStr;
given f being Function of R, S such that
A1: f is RingIsomorphism;
A2: f is onto by A1;
then
A3: rng f = [#]S;
set g = f";
A4: f is one-to-one by A1;
A5: f is RingHomomorphism by A1;
for x,y being Element of S holds g.(x+y) = g.x + g.y & g.(x*y) = g.x *
g.y & g.(1_S) = 1_R
proof
let x,y be Element of S;
consider x9 being object such that
A6: x9 in the carrier of R and
A7: f.(x9) = x by A3,FUNCT_2:11;
reconsider x9 as Element of R by A6;
A8: x9 = ((f qua Function)").(f.(x9)) by A4,FUNCT_2:26
.= g.x by A4,A7,A2,TOPS_2:def 4;
consider y9 being object such that
A9: y9 in the carrier of R and
A10: f.(y9) = y by A3,FUNCT_2:11;
reconsider y9 as Element of R by A9;
A11: y9 = ((f qua Function)").(f.(y9)) by A4,FUNCT_2:26
.= g.y by A4,A10,A2,TOPS_2:def 4;
thus g.(x+y) = g.(f.(x9+y9)) by A5,A7,A10,VECTSP_1:def 20
.= ((f qua Function)").(f.(x9+y9)) by A2,A4,TOPS_2:def 4
.= g.x + g.y by A4,A8,A11,FUNCT_2:26;
thus g.(x*y) = g.(f.(x9*y9)) by A5,A7,A10,GROUP_6:def 6
.= ((f qua Function)").(f.(x9*y9)) by A2,A4,TOPS_2:def 4
.= g.x * g.y by A4,A8,A11,FUNCT_2:26;
thus g.(1_S) = g.(f.(1_R)) by A5,GROUP_1:def 13
.= ((f qua Function)").(f.(1_R)) by A2,A4,TOPS_2:def 4
.= 1_R by A4,FUNCT_2:26;
end;
then
A12: g is additive multiplicative unity-preserving
by GROUP_1:def 13,GROUP_6:def 6;
rng g = [#]R by A3,A4,TOPS_2:49;
then g is onto;
then
A13: g is RingEpimorphism by A12;
g is one-to-one by A3,A4,TOPS_2:50;
then g is RingMonomorphism by A12;
hence thesis by A13;
end;
end;
begin :: Properties of the Field of Quotients
definition
let I be non empty ZeroStr;
let x, y be Element of I;
assume
A1: y <> 0.I;
func quotient(x,y) -> Element of Q.I equals
:Def20:
[x,y];
coherence by A1,Def1;
end;
definition
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
func canHom(I) -> Function of I, the_Field_of_Quotients(I) means
:Def21:
for x being Element of I holds it.x = QClass.(quotient(x,1.I));
existence
proof
set f = { [x,QClass.(quotient(x,y))] where x,y is Element of I : y = 1.I};
A1: for u being object holds u in f implies ex a,b being object st u = [a,b]
proof
let u be object;
assume u in f;
then
ex a,b being Element of I st u = [a,QClass.(quotient(a,b))] & b = 1. I;
hence thesis;
end;
for a,b1,b2 being object st [a,b1] in f & [a,b2] in f holds b1 = b2
proof
let a,b1,b2 be object;
assume that
A2: [a,b1] in f and
A3: [a,b2] in f;
consider x1,x2 being Element of I such that
A4: [a,b1] = [x1,QClass.(quotient(x1,x2))] and
A5: x2 = 1.I by A2;
A6: a = x1 by A4,XTUPLE_0:1;
consider y1,y2 being Element of I such that
A7: [a,b2] = [y1,QClass.(quotient(y1,y2))] and
A8: y2 = 1.I by A3;
A9: a = y1 by A7,XTUPLE_0:1;
reconsider a as Element of I by A6;
b1 = b2 by A4,A5,A7,A8,A6,A9,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider f as Function by A1,FUNCT_1:def 1,RELAT_1:def 1;
A10: for x being object holds x in dom f implies x in the carrier of I
proof
let x be object;
assume x in dom f;
then consider y being object such that
A11: [x,y] in f by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
consider a,b being Element of I such that
A12: [x,y] = [a,QClass.(quotient(a,b))] and
b = 1.I by A11;
x = a by A12,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
for x being object holds x in the carrier of I implies x in dom f
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of I;
then reconsider x as Element of I;
[x,QClass.(quotient(x,1.I))] in f;
hence thesis by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
end;
then
A13: dom f = the carrier of I by A10,TARSKI:2;
for y being object holds y in rng f implies y in the carrier of (
the_Field_of_Quotients(I))
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng f;
then consider x being object such that
A14: [x,y] in f by XTUPLE_0:def 13;
consider a,b being Element of I such that
A15: [x,y] = [a,QClass.(quotient(a,b))] and
b = 1.I by A14;
y = QClass.(quotient(a,b)) by A15,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
then rng f c= the carrier of (the_Field_of_Quotients(I)) by TARSKI:def 3;
then reconsider f as Function of I, the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by A13,
FUNCT_2:def 1,RELSET_1:4;
for x being Element of I holds f.x = QClass.(quotient(x,1.I))
proof
let x be Element of I;
[x,QClass.(quotient(x,1.I))] in f;
hence thesis by A13,FUNCT_1:def 2;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let f1,f2 be Function of I, the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
assume
A16: for x being Element of I holds f1.x = QClass.(quotient(x,1.I));
assume
A17: for x being Element of I holds f2.x = QClass.(quotient(x,1.I));
for x being object st x in the carrier of I holds f1.x = f2.x
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of I;
then reconsider x as Element of I;
f1.x = QClass.(quotient(x,1.I)) by A16
.= f2.x by A17;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
theorem Th56:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds
canHom(I) is RingHomomorphism
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
A1: 0.I <> 1.I;
for x,y being Element of I holds (canHom(I)).(x+y) = (canHom(I)).x + (
canHom(I)).y & (canHom(I)).(x*y) = (canHom(I)).x * (canHom(I)).y & (canHom(I)).
(1_I) = 1_the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
reconsider res3 = [1.I,1.I] as Element of Q.I by A1,Def1;
let x,y be Element of I;
reconsider t1 = (quotient(x,1.I)), t2 = (quotient(y,1.I)) as Element of Q.
I;
A2: t1`2 = [x,1.I]`2 by A1,Def20
.= 1.I;
t1`2 <> 0.I & t2`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A3: t1`2 * t2`2 <> 0.I by VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider
sum = [t1`1*t2`2+t2`1*t1`2,t1`2*t2`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
A4: t2`1 = [y,1.I]`1 by A1,Def20
.= y;
reconsider prod = [t1`1*t2`1,t1`2*t2`2] as Element of Q.I by A3,Def1;
A5: QClass.t1 = (canHom(I)).x & QClass.t2 = (canHom(I)).y by Def21;
A6: (quotadd(I)).(QClass.t1,QClass.t2) = qadd(QClass.t1,QClass.t2) by Def12
.= QClass.(padd(t1,t2)) by Th9
.= QClass.sum;
A7: t1`1 = [x,1.I]`1 by A1,Def20
.= x;
A8: t2`2 = [y,1.I]`2 by A1,Def20
.= 1.I;
then
A9: sum = [t1`1+t2`1*1.I,1.I*1.I] by A2
.= [t1`1+t2`1,1.I*1.I]
.= [x+y,1.I] by A4,A7;
thus (canHom(I)).(x+y) = QClass.(quotient(x+y,1.I)) by Def21
.= (canHom(I)).x + (canHom(I)).y by A1,A5,A6,A9,Def20;
A10: (quotmult(I)).(QClass.t1,QClass.t2) = qmult(QClass.t1,QClass.t2) by Def13
.= QClass.(pmult(t1,t2)) by Th10
.= QClass.prod;
A11: prod = [x*y,1.I] by A8,A2,A4,A7;
thus (canHom(I)).(x*y) = QClass.(quotient(x*y,1.I)) by Def21
.= (canHom(I)).x * (canHom(I)).y by A1,A5,A10,A11,Def20;
A12: for u being object holds u in QClass.res3 implies u in q1.I
proof
let u be object;
assume
A13: u in QClass.res3;
then reconsider u as Element of Q.I;
u`1 = u`1 * 1.I
.= u`1 * res3`2
.= u`2 * res3`1 by A13,Def4
.= u`2 * 1.I
.= u`2;
hence thesis by Def9;
end;
for u being object holds u in q1.I implies u in QClass.res3
proof
let u be object;
assume
A14: u in q1.I;
then reconsider u as Element of Q.I;
u`1 * res3`2 = u`1 * 1.I
.= u`1
.= u`2 by A14,Def9
.= u`2 * 1.I
.= u`2 * res3`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
then
A15: q1.I = QClass.res3 by A12,TARSKI:2;
thus (canHom(I)).(1_I) = QClass.(quotient(1.I,1.I)) by Def21
.= 1_the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by A1,A15,Def20;
end;
then canHom(I) is additive multiplicative unity-preserving by GROUP_1:def 13
,GROUP_6:def 6;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th57:
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds
canHom(I) is embedding
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
A1: 0.I <> 1.I;
for x1,x2 being object st x1 in dom canHom(I) & x2 in dom canHom(I) & (
canHom(I)).x1 = (canHom(I)).x2 holds x1 = x2
proof
let x1,x2 be object;
assume that
A2: x1 in dom canHom(I) & x2 in dom canHom(I) and
A3: (canHom(I)).x1 = (canHom(I)).x2;
reconsider x1,x2 as Element of I by A2;
reconsider t1 = quotient(x1,1.I), t2 = quotient(x2,1.I) as Element of Q.I;
A4: t1 in QClass.t1 by Th5;
QClass.t1 = (canHom(I)).x2 by A3,Def21
.= QClass.t2 by Def21;
then
A5: t1`1 * t2`2 = t1`2 * t2`1 by A4,Def4;
A6: t1`2 = [x1,1.I]`2 by A1,Def20
.= 1.I;
A7: t1`1 = [x1,1.I]`1 by A1,Def20
.= x1;
A8: t2`1 = [x2,1.I]`1 by A1,Def20
.= x2;
t2`2 = [x2,1.I]`2 by A1,Def20
.= 1.I;
then x1 = t1`2 * t2`1 by A5,A7
.= x2 by A6,A8;
hence thesis;
end;
then
A9: (canHom(I)) is one-to-one by FUNCT_1:def 4;
(canHom(I)) is RingHomomorphism by Th56;
hence thesis by A9;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds I
is_embedded_in the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
canHom(I) is embedding by Th57;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th59:
for F being non degenerated almost_left_invertible domRing-like
commutative Ring holds F is_ringisomorph_to the_Field_of_Quotients(F)
proof
let F be non degenerated almost_left_invertible domRing-like commutative
Ring;
A1: 0.F <> 1.F;
A2: dom canHom(F) = the carrier of F by FUNCT_2:def 1;
A3: for x being object holds x in the carrier of the_Field_of_Quotients(F)
implies x in rng canHom(F)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of the_Field_of_Quotients(F);
then reconsider x as Element of Quot.F;
consider u being Element of Q.F such that
A4: x = QClass.u by Def5;
consider a,b being Element of F such that
A5: u = [a,b] and
A6: b <> 0.F by Def1;
consider z being Element of F such that
A7: z * b = 1.F by A6,VECTSP_1:def 9;
reconsider t = [a*z,1.F] as Element of Q.F by A1,Def1;
A8: for x being object holds x in QClass.t implies x in QClass.u
proof
let x be object;
assume
A9: x in QClass.t;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.F;
x`1 = x`1 * 1.F
.= x`1 * t`2
.= x`2 * t`1 by A9,Def4
.= x`2 * (a * z);
then x`1 * u`2 = (x`2 * (a * z)) * b by A5
.= x`2 * ((a * z) * b) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= x`2 * (a * 1.F) by A7,GROUP_1:def 3
.= x`2 * a
.= x`2 * u`1 by A5;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
for x being object holds x in QClass.u implies x in QClass.t
proof
let x be object;
assume
A10: x in QClass.u;
then reconsider x as Element of Q.F;
x`1 * t`2 = x`1 * (b * z) by A7
.= (x`1 * b) * z by GROUP_1:def 3
.= (x`1 * u`2) * z by A5
.= (x`2 * u`1) * z by A10,Def4
.= (x`2 * a) * z by A5
.= (x`2 * (a * z)) by GROUP_1:def 3
.= x`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
then
A11: QClass.t = QClass.u by A8,TARSKI:2;
(canHom(F)).(a*z) = QClass.(quotient(a*z,1.F)) by Def21
.= x by A1,A4,A11,Def20;
hence thesis by A2,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
for x being object holds x in rng canHom(F) implies x in the carrier of
the_Field_of_Quotients(F);
then rng canHom(F) = the carrier of the_Field_of_Quotients(F) by A3,TARSKI:2;
then
A12: canHom(F) is onto;
A13: canHom(F) is embedding by Th57;
then canHom(F) is RingHomomorphism;
then canHom(F) is RingEpimorphism by A12;
hence thesis by A13;
end;
registration
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
cluster the_Field_of_Quotients(I) -> domRing-like right_unital
right-distributive;
coherence;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds
the_Field_of_Quotients(the_Field_of_Quotients(I)) is_ringisomorph_to
the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by Th59;
:: Universal Property of Fields of Quotients
definition
let I, F be non empty doubleLoopStr;
let f be Function of I, F;
pred I has_Field_of_Quotients_Pair F,f means
f is RingMonomorphism &
for F9 being add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian
commutative associative well-unital distributive almost_left_invertible non
degenerated non empty doubleLoopStr for f9 being Function of I, F9 st f9 is
RingMonomorphism holds ex h being Function of F, F9 st h is RingHomomorphism &
h*f = f9 & for h9 being Function of F, F9 st h9 is RingHomomorphism & h9*f = f9
holds h9 = h;
end;
theorem
for I being non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring holds ex F
being add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian commutative
associative well-unital distributive almost_left_invertible non degenerated
non empty doubleLoopStr st ex f being Function of I, F st I
has_Field_of_Quotients_Pair F,f
proof
let I be non degenerated domRing-like commutative Ring;
A1: now
let F9 be add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian
commutative associative well-unital distributive almost_left_invertible non
degenerated non empty doubleLoopStr;
let f9 be Function of I, F9;
set hh = { [[a,b], f9.a * (f9.b)"] where a,b is Element of I : b <> 0.I };
A2: for u being object holds u in hh implies ex a,b being object st u = [a,b]
proof
let u be object;
assume u in hh;
then
ex a,b being Element of I st u = [[a,b], f9.a * (f9.b)"] & b <> 0.I;
hence thesis;
end;
for a,b1,b2 being object st [a,b1] in hh & [a,b2] in hh holds b1 = b2
proof
let a,b1,b2 be object;
assume that
A3: [a,b1] in hh and
A4: [a,b2] in hh;
consider x1,x2 being Element of I such that
A5: [a,b1] = [[x1,x2], f9.x1 * (f9.x2)"] and
x2 <> 0.I by A3;
consider y1,y2 being Element of I such that
A6: [a,b2] = [[y1,y2], f9.y1 * (f9.y2)"] and
y2 <> 0.I by A4;
A7: a = [y1,y2] by A6,XTUPLE_0:1;
A8: a = [x1,x2] by A5,XTUPLE_0:1;
then
A9: x2 = y2 by A7,XTUPLE_0:1;
x1 = y1 by A7,A8,XTUPLE_0:1;
then b1 = b2 by A5,A6,A9,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider hh as Function by A2,FUNCT_1:def 1,RELAT_1:def 1;
A10: for x being object holds x in dom hh implies x in Q.I
proof
let x be object;
assume x in dom hh;
then consider y being object such that
A11: [x,y] in hh by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
consider a,b being Element of I such that
A12: [x,y] = [[a,b],f9.a * (f9.b)"] and
A13: b <> 0.I by A11;
x = [a,b] by A12,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A13,Def1;
end;
for x being object holds x in Q.I implies x in dom hh
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Q.I;
then consider a,b being Element of I such that
A14: x = [a,b] and
A15: b <> 0.I by Def1;
[[a,b],f9.a * (f9.b)"] in hh by A15;
hence thesis by A14,XTUPLE_0:def 12;
end;
then
A16: dom hh = Q.I by A10,TARSKI:2;
for y being object holds y in rng hh implies y in the carrier of F9
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng hh;
then consider x being object such that
A17: [x,y] in hh by XTUPLE_0:def 13;
consider a,b being Element of I such that
A18: [x,y] = [[a,b],f9.a * (f9.b)"] and
b <> 0.I by A17;
y = f9.a * (f9.b)" by A18,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
then rng hh c= the carrier of F9 by TARSKI:def 3;
then reconsider hh as Function of Q.I, the carrier of F9 by A16,
FUNCT_2:def 1,RELSET_1:4;
set h = { [QClass.u, hh.u] where u is Element of Q.I : 1.I = 1.I };
0.F9 <> 1.F9 & 1.F9 * 1.F9 = 1.F9;
then
A19: (1.F9)" = 1.F9 by VECTSP_1:def 10;
assume
A20: f9 is RingMonomorphism;
then
A21: f9 is RingHomomorphism;
A22: for v being object holds v in h implies ex a,b being object st v = [a,b]
proof
let v be object;
assume v in h;
then ex u being Element of Q.I st v = [QClass.u, hh.u] & 1.I = 1.I;
hence thesis;
end;
A23: for x being Element of Q.I holds hh.x = f9.(x`1) * (f9.(x`2))"
proof
let x be Element of Q.I;
consider a,b being Element of I such that
A24: x = [a,b] and
A25: b <> 0.I by Def1;
A26: [[a,b],f9.a * (f9.b)"] in hh by A25;
thus thesis by A16,A24,A26,FUNCT_1:def 2;
end;
for a,b1,b2 being object st [a,b1] in h & [a,b2] in h holds b1 = b2
proof
let a,b1,b2 be object;
assume that
A27: [a,b1] in h and
A28: [a,b2] in h;
consider u1 being Element of Q.I such that
A29: [a,b1] = [QClass.u1, hh.u1] and
1.I = 1.I by A27;
consider u2 being Element of Q.I such that
A30: [a,b2] = [QClass.u2, hh.u2] and
1.I = 1.I by A28;
A31: a = QClass.u2 by A30,XTUPLE_0:1;
a = QClass.u1 by A29,XTUPLE_0:1;
then u1 in QClass.u2 by A31,Th5;
then
A32: u1`1 * u2`2 = u1`2 * u2`1 by Def4;
u1`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A33: f9.(u1`2) <> 0.F9 by A20,Th51;
u2`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A34: f9.(u2`2) <> 0.F9 by A20,Th51;
A35: f9 is RingHomomorphism by A20;
A36: hh.u1 = f9.(u1`1)/f9.(u1`2) by A23
.= (f9.(u1`1)/f9.(u1`2)) * 1.F9
.= (f9.(u1`1)/f9.(u1`2)) * (f9.(u2`2)/f9.(u2`2)) by A34,VECTSP_1:def 10
.= (f9.(u1`1)*f9.(u2`2)) / (f9.(u1`2)*f9.(u2`2)) by A33,A34,Th48
.= (f9.(u1`2 * u2`1)) / (f9.(u1`2)*f9.(u2`2)) by A32,A35,GROUP_6:def 6
.= (f9.(u1`2)*f9.(u2`1)) / (f9.(u1`2)*f9.(u2`2)) by A35,GROUP_6:def 6
.= (f9.(u1`2)/f9.(u1`2)) * (f9.(u2`1)/f9.(u2`2)) by A33,A34,Th48
.= 1.F9 * (f9.(u2`1)*(f9.(u2`2))") by A33,VECTSP_1:def 10
.= (f9.(u2`1)*(f9.(u2`2))")
.= hh.u2 by A23;
b1 = hh.u2 by A36,A29,XTUPLE_0:1
.= b2 by A30,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider h as Function by A22,FUNCT_1:def 1,RELAT_1:def 1;
A37: for x being object holds x in dom h implies x in Quot.I
proof
let x be object;
assume x in dom h;
then consider y being object such that
A38: [x,y] in h by XTUPLE_0:def 12;
consider u being Element of Q.I such that
A39: [x,y] = [QClass.u, hh.u] and
1.I = 1.I by A38;
x = QClass.u by A39,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
for x being object holds x in Quot.I implies x in dom h
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Quot.I;
then consider u being Element of Q.I such that
A40: x = QClass.u by Def5;
[QClass.u, hh.u] in h;
hence thesis by A40,XTUPLE_0:def 12;
end;
then
A41: dom h = Quot.I by A37,TARSKI:2;
for y being object holds y in rng h implies y in the carrier of F9
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng h;
then consider x being object such that
A42: [x,y] in h by XTUPLE_0:def 13;
consider u being Element of Q.I such that
A43: [x,y] = [QClass.u, hh.u] and
1.I = 1.I by A42;
y = hh.u by A43,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis;
end;
then rng h c= the carrier of F9 by TARSKI:def 3;
then reconsider h as Function of Quot.I, the carrier of F9 by A41,
FUNCT_2:def 1,RELSET_1:4;
reconsider h as Function of the_Field_of_Quotients(I), F9;
A44: for x being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) for u being Element
of Q.I st x = QClass.u holds h.x = hh.u
proof
let x be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
let u be Element of Q.I;
A45: [QClass.u, hh.u] in h;
assume x = QClass.u;
hence thesis by A41,A45,FUNCT_1:def 2;
end;
A46: now
let h9 be Function of the_Field_of_Quotients(I), F9;
assume that
A47: h9 is RingHomomorphism and
A48: h9*canHom(I) = f9;
A49: 0.I <> 1.I;
for x being object st x in the carrier of the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
holds h9.x = h.x
proof
let x be object;
assume x in the carrier of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
then reconsider x as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients( I);
reconsider x9 = x as Element of Quot.I;
consider u being Element of Q.I such that
A50: x9 = QClass.u by Def5;
consider a,b being Element of I such that
A51: u = [a,b] and
A52: b <> 0.I by Def1;
reconsider a9 = [a,1.I], b9 = [b,1.I] as Element of Q.I by A49,Def1;
reconsider a99 = QClass.(a9), b99 = QClass.(b9) as Element of
the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider bi = [1.I,b] as Element of Q.I by A52,Def1;
reconsider aa = QClass.(quotient(a,1.I)) as Element of
the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider bb = QClass.(quotient(b,1.I)) as Element of
the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider bi9 = QClass.bi as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
A54: b99 <> 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I)
proof
A55: b9 in b99 by Th5;
assume
A56: b99 = 0.the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
b = [b,1.I]`1
.= 0.I by A56,A55,Def8;
hence contradiction by A52;
end;
A57: h.x = hh.u by A44,A50
.= (h9*canHom(I)).(u`1) * (f9.(u`2))" by A23,A48
.= h9.((canHom(I)).(u`1)) * ((h9*canHom(I)).(u`2))" by A48,FUNCT_2:15
.= h9.((canHom(I)).(u`1)) * (h9.((canHom(I)).(u`2)))" by FUNCT_2:15;
A58: h9.((quotmult(I)).(a99,bi9)) = h9.(qmult(QClass.(a9),QClass.bi))
by Def13
.= h9.(QClass.(pmult(a9,bi))) by Th10;
h9.((canHom(I)).(u`1)) * (h9.((canHom(I)).(u`2)))" = h9.((canHom
(I)).a) * (h9.((canHom(I)).(u`2)))" by A51
.= h9.aa * (h9.((canHom(I)).(u`2)))" by Def21
.= h9.(a99) * (h9.((canHom(I)).(u`2)))" by A49,Def20
.= h9.(a99) * (h9.((canHom(I)).b))" by A51
.= h9.(a99) * (h9.(bb))" by Def21
.= h9.(a99) * (h9.(b99))" by A49,Def20
.= h9.(a99 * (b99)") by A47,A54,Th53;
hence thesis by A50,A51,A52,A57,A54,A58,Th47;
end;
hence h9 = h;
end;
A59: 1_F9 = 1.F9;
for x,y being Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) holds h.(x+y) = h.
x + h.y & h.(x*y) = h.x * h.y & h.(1_the_Field_of_Quotients(I)) = 1_F9
proof
let x,y be Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider x,y as Element of Quot.I;
A60: 0.F9 <> 1.F9;
consider u being Element of Q.I such that
A61: x = QClass.u by Def5;
A62: u`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A63: f9.(u`2) <> 0.F9 by A20,Th51;
consider v being Element of Q.I such that
A64: y = QClass.v by Def5;
A65: v`2 <> 0.I by Th2;
then
A66: f9.(v`2) <> 0.F9 by A20,Th51;
A67: u`2 * v`2 <> 0.I by A62,A65,VECTSP_2:def 1;
then reconsider
t = [u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2, u`2 * v`2] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
reconsider x,y as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
reconsider x9 = x, y9 = y as Element of Quot.I;
A68: h.(qadd(x9,y9)) = h.(QClass.(padd(u,v))) by A61,A64,Th9
.= h.(QClass.t);
A69: h.x + h.y = hh.u + h.y by A44,A61
.= hh.u + hh.v by A44,A64
.= (f9.(u`1) * (f9.(u`2))") + hh.v by A23
.= (f9.(u`1) / f9.(u`2)) + (f9.(v`1) / f9.(v`2)) by A23
.= (f9.(u`1) * f9.(v`2) + f9.(v`1) * f9.(u`2)) / (f9.(u`2) * f9.(v`2
)) by A63,A66,Th49
.= (f9.(u`1 * v`2) + f9.(v`1) * f9.(u`2)) / (f9.(u`2) * f9.(v`2)) by
A21,GROUP_6:def 6
.= (f9.(u`1 * v`2) + f9.(v`1 * u`2)) / (f9.(u`2) * f9.(v`2)) by A21,
GROUP_6:def 6
.= (f9.(u`1 * v`2) + f9.(v`1 * u`2)) * (f9.(u`2 * v`2))" by A21,
GROUP_6:def 6
.= (f9.(u`1 * v`2 + v`1 * u`2))*(f9.(u`2 * v`2))"
by A21,VECTSP_1:def 20
.= f9.(t`1) * (f9.(u`2 * v`2))"
.= f9.(t`1) * (f9.(t`2))"
.= hh.t by A23;
A70: h.(QClass.t) = hh.t by A44;
reconsider t = [u`1 * v`1, u`2 * v`2] as Element of Q.I by A67,Def1;
A71: h.x * h.y = hh.u * h.y by A44,A61
.= hh.u * hh.v by A44,A64
.= (f9.(u`1) * (f9.(u`2))") * hh.v by A23
.= (f9.(u`1) / f9.(u`2)) * (f9.(v`1) / f9.(v`2)) by A23
.= (f9.(u`1) * f9.(v`1)) / (f9.(u`2) * f9.(v`2)) by A63,A66,Th48
.= (f9.(u`1 * v`1)) / (f9.(u`2) * f9.(v`2)) by A21,GROUP_6:def 6
.= (f9.(u`1 * v`1)) * (f9.(u`2 * v`2))" by A21,GROUP_6:def 6
.= f9.(t`1) * (f9.(u`2 * v`2))"
.= f9.(t`1) * (f9.(t`2))"
.= hh.t by A23;
reconsider x9 = x, y9 = y as Element of Quot.I;
A72: h.(qmult(x9,y9)) = h.(QClass.(pmult(u,v))) by A61,A64,Th10
.= h.(QClass.t);
A73: h.(QClass.t) = hh.t by A44;
0.I <> 1.I;
then reconsider t = [1.I,1.I] as Element of Q.I by Def1;
A74: for u being object holds u in QClass.t implies u in q1.I
proof
let u be object;
assume
A75: u in QClass.t;
then reconsider u as Element of Q.I;
u`1 = u`1 * 1.I
.= u`1 * t`2
.= u`2 * t`1 by A75,Def4
.= u`2 * 1.I
.= u`2;
hence thesis by Def9;
end;
for u being object holds u in q1.I implies u in QClass.t
proof
let u be object;
assume
A76: u in q1.I;
then reconsider u as Element of Q.I;
u`1 * t`2 = u`1 * 1.I
.= u`1
.= u`2 by A76,Def9
.= u`2 * 1.I
.= u`2 * t`1;
hence thesis by Def4;
end;
then q1.I = QClass.t by A74,TARSKI:2;
then h.(1_the_Field_of_Quotients(I)) = hh.t by A44
.= f9.(t`1) * (f9.(t`2))" by A23
.= f9.(1.I) * (f9.(t`2))"
.= f9.(1.I) * (f9.(1.I))"
.= 1.F9 * (f9.(1_I))" by A21,A59,GROUP_1:def 13
.= 1.F9 * (1_F9)" by A21,GROUP_1:def 13
.= 1_F9 by A60,VECTSP_1:def 10;
hence thesis by A69,A68,A70,A71,A72,A73,Def12,Def13;
end;
then
A77: h is additive multiplicative unity-preserving by GROUP_1:def 13
,GROUP_6:def 6;
A78: for x being object holds x in dom f9 implies x in dom canHom(I) & (
canHom(I)).x in dom h
proof
let x be object;
assume x in dom f9;
then reconsider x as Element of I;
dom h = the carrier of the_Field_of_Quotients(I) by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then x in the carrier of I & (canHom(I)).x in dom h;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:def 1;
end;
A79: 0.I <> 1.I;
A80: for x being object st x in dom f9 holds f9.x = h.((canHom(I)).x)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in dom f9;
then reconsider x as Element of I;
reconsider u = [x,1.I] as Element of Q.I by A79,Def1;
reconsider u9 = QClass.u as Element of the_Field_of_Quotients(I);
h.((canHom(I)).x) = h.(QClass.(quotient(x,1.I)))by Def21
.= h.u9 by Def20
.= hh.u by A44
.= f9.(u`1) * (f9.(u`2))" by A23
.= f9.(u`1) * (f9.(1_I))"
.= f9.(u`1) * 1_F9 by A21,A19,GROUP_1:def 13
.= f9.(u`1)
.= f9.(x);
hence thesis;
end;
for x being object holds x in dom canHom(I) & (canHom(I)).x in dom h
implies x in dom f9
proof
let x be object;
assume that
A81: x in dom canHom(I) and
(canHom(I)).x in dom h;
reconsider x as Element of I by A81;
x in the carrier of I;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:def 1;
end;
then h * canHom(I) = f9 by A78,A80,FUNCT_1:10;
hence ex h being Function of the_Field_of_Quotients(I), F9 st h is
RingHomomorphism & h*canHom(I) = f9 & for h9 being Function of
the_Field_of_Quotients(I), F9 st h9 is RingHomomorphism & h9*canHom(I) = f9
holds h9 = h by A77,A46;
end;
canHom(I) is embedding by Th57;
then I has_Field_of_Quotients_Pair the_Field_of_Quotients(I),canHom(I) by A1;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for I being domRing-like commutative Ring for F,F9 being
add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian commutative
associative well-unital distributive almost_left_invertible non degenerated
non empty doubleLoopStr for f being Function of I, F for f9 being Function of
I, F9 st I has_Field_of_Quotients_Pair F,f & I has_Field_of_Quotients_Pair F9,
f9 holds F is_ringisomorph_to F9
proof
let I be domRing-like commutative Ring;
let F,F9 be add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian
commutative associative well-unital distributive almost_left_invertible non
degenerated non empty doubleLoopStr;
let f be Function of I, F;
let f9 be Function of I, F9;
assume that
A1: I has_Field_of_Quotients_Pair F,f and
A2: I has_Field_of_Quotients_Pair F9,f9;
A3: (id F9) * f9 = f9 by FUNCT_2:17;
f is RingMonomorphism by A1;
then consider h2 being Function of F9, F such that
A4: h2 is RingHomomorphism & h2*f9 = f and
for h9 being Function of F9, F st h9 is RingHomomorphism & h9*f9 = f
holds h9 = h2 by A2;
consider h3 being Function of F, F such that
h3 is RingHomomorphism and
h3*f = f and
A5: for h9 being Function of F, F st h9 is RingHomomorphism & h9*f = f
holds h9 = h3 by A1;
A6: id F * f = f by FUNCT_2:17;
f9 is RingMonomorphism by A2;
then consider h1 being Function of F, F9 such that
A7: h1 is RingHomomorphism and
A8: h1*f = f9 and
for h9 being Function of F, F9 st h9 is RingHomomorphism & h9*f = f9
holds h9 = h1 by A1;
(h2 * h1) * f = f & h2 * h1 is RingHomomorphism by A7,A8,A4,Th54,RELAT_1:36;
then
A9: (h2 * h1) = h3 by A5
.= id the carrier of F by A6,A5;
consider h3 being Function of F9, F9 such that
h3 is RingHomomorphism and
h3*f9 = f9 and
A10: for h9 being Function of F9, F9 st h9 is RingHomomorphism & h9*f9 =
f9 holds h9 = h3 by A2;
(h1 * h2) * f9 = f9 & h1 * h2 is RingHomomorphism by A7,A8,A4,Th54,
RELAT_1:36;
then h1 * h2 = h3 by A10
.= id the carrier of F9 by A3,A10;
then rng h1 = the carrier of F9 by FUNCT_2:18;
then h1 is onto;
then
A11: h1 is RingEpimorphism by A7;
h1 is one-to-one by A9,FUNCT_2:31;
then h1 is RingMonomorphism by A7;
hence thesis by A11;
end;