:: A Construction of an Abstract Space of Congruence of Vectors
:: by Grzegorz Lewandowski and Krzysztof Pra\.zmowski
::
:: Received May 23, 1990
:: Copyright (c) 1990-2017 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies SUBSET_1, VECTSP_1, ARYTM_3, NUMBERS, SUPINF_2, XBOOLE_0,
ALGSTR_0, STRUCT_0, RLVECT_1, PBOOLE, RELAT_1, ZFMISC_1, ANALOAF, CARD_1,
ARYTM_1, TDGROUP;
notations TARSKI, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0, REAL_1,
STRUCT_0, ALGSTR_0, ANALOAF, RELSET_1, RLVECT_1, VECTSP_1;
constructors BINOP_2, ANALOAF, REAL_1, DOMAIN_1, VECTSP_1, MEMBERED, NUMBERS;
registrations RELSET_1, STRUCT_0, VECTSP_1, ANALOAF, MEMBERED, XREAL_0;
requirements NUMERALS, SUBSET, BOOLE, ARITHM;
definitions VECTSP_1;
equalities VECTSP_1, STRUCT_0;
expansions VECTSP_1, STRUCT_0;
theorems VECTSP_1, RELAT_1, ZFMISC_1, DOMAIN_1, RLVECT_1, ANALOAF, STRUCT_0,
XTUPLE_0, XREAL_0;
schemes RELSET_1;
begin
theorem Th1:
for a being Element of G_Real holds ex b being Element of G_Real st b + b = a
proof
set G = G_Real;
let a be Element of G;
reconsider a as Element of REAL;
reconsider b9 = a/2 as Element of REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
consider b being Element of G such that
A1: b = b9;
b + b = a by A1;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for a being Element of G_Real st a + a = 0.G_Real holds a = 0.G_Real;
definition
let IT be non empty addLoopStr;
attr IT is Two_Divisible means
:Def1:
for a being Element of IT holds ex b being Element of IT st b + b = a;
end;
Lm1: G_Real is Fanoian;
registration
cluster G_Real -> Fanoian Two_Divisible;
coherence by Th1;
end;
registration
cluster strict Fanoian Two_Divisible add-associative right_zeroed
right_complementable Abelian for non empty addLoopStr;
existence by Lm1;
end;
definition
mode Two_Divisible_Group is Two_Divisible add-associative right_zeroed
right_complementable Abelian non empty addLoopStr;
end;
definition
mode Uniquely_Two_Divisible_Group is Fanoian Two_Divisible add-associative
right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian non empty addLoopStr;
end;
theorem
for AG being add-associative right_zeroed right_complementable Abelian
non empty addLoopStr holds (AG is Uniquely_Two_Divisible_Group iff (for a
being Element of AG holds (ex b being Element of AG st b + b = a)) & (for a
being Element of AG st a + a = 0.AG holds a = 0.AG)) by Def1,VECTSP_1:def 18;
reserve ADG for Uniquely_Two_Divisible_Group;
reserve a,b,c,d,a9,b9,c9,p,q for Element of ADG;
reserve x,y for set;
notation
let ADG be non empty addLoopStr;
let a,b be Element of ADG;
synonym a # b for a+b;
end;
definition
let ADG be non empty addLoopStr;
func CONGRD(ADG) -> Relation of [:the carrier of ADG,the carrier of ADG:]
means
:Def2:
for a,b,c,d being Element of ADG holds [[a,b],[c,d]] in it iff a # d = b # c;
existence
proof
set X = the carrier of ADG;
set XX = [:X,X:];
defpred X[object,object] means
ex a,b,c,d being Element of X st $1=[a,b] & $2=[c
,d] & a # d = b # c;
consider P being Relation of XX,XX such that
A1: for x,y being object holds [x,y] in P iff x in XX & y in XX & X[x,y] from
RELSET_1:sch 1;
take P;
let a,b,c,d be Element of X;
A2: [[a,b],[c,d]] in P implies a # d = b # c
proof
assume [[a,b],[c,d]] in P;
then consider a9,b9,c9,d9 being Element of X such that
A3: [a,b]=[a9,b9] and
A4: [c,d]=[c9,d9] and
A5: a9 # d9 = b9 # c9 by A1;
A6: c = c9 by A4,XTUPLE_0:1;
a=a9 & b=b9 by A3,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A4,A5,A6,XTUPLE_0:1;
end;
[a,b] in XX & [c,d] in XX by ZFMISC_1:def 2;
hence thesis by A1,A2;
end;
uniqueness
proof
set X = the carrier of ADG;
set XX = [:X,X:];
let P,Q be Relation of [:X,X:] such that
A7: for a,b,c,d being Element of X holds [[a,b],[c,d]] in P iff a # d
= b # c and
A8: for a,b,c,d being Element of X holds [[a,b],[c,d]] in Q iff a # d = b # c;
for x,y being object holds [x,y] in P iff [x,y] in Q
proof
let x,y be object;
A9: now
assume
A10: [x,y] in Q;
then x in XX by ZFMISC_1:87;
then consider a,b being Element of ADG such that
A11: x=[a,b] by DOMAIN_1:1;
y in XX by A10,ZFMISC_1:87;
then consider c,d being Element of ADG such that
A12: y=[c,d] by DOMAIN_1:1;
[x,y] in Q iff a # d = b # c by A8,A11,A12;
hence [x,y] in P by A7,A10,A11,A12;
end;
now
assume
A13: [x,y] in P;
then x in XX by ZFMISC_1:87;
then consider a,b being Element of ADG such that
A14: x=[a,b] by DOMAIN_1:1;
y in XX by A13,ZFMISC_1:87;
then consider c,d being Element of ADG such that
A15: y=[c,d] by DOMAIN_1:1;
[x,y] in P iff a # d = b # c by A7,A14,A15;
hence [x,y] in Q by A8,A13,A14,A15;
end;
hence thesis by A9;
end;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 2;
end;
end;
definition
let ADG be non empty addLoopStr;
func AV(ADG) -> strict AffinStruct equals
AffinStruct(#the carrier of ADG,
CONGRD(ADG)#);
coherence;
end;
registration
let ADG be non empty addLoopStr;
cluster AV ADG -> non empty;
coherence;
end;
theorem
the carrier of AV(ADG) = the carrier of ADG & the CONGR of AV(ADG) =
CONGRD(ADG);
definition
let ADG;
let a,b,c,d;
pred a,b ==> c,d means
[[a,b],[c,d]] in the CONGR of AV(ADG);
end;
theorem Th5:
a,b ==> c,d iff a # d = b # c
by Def2;
theorem Th6:
ex a,b being Element of G_Real st a<>b
proof
A1: 0 in REAL & 1 in REAL by XREAL_0:def 1;
thus thesis by A1;
end;
theorem
ex ADG st ex a,b st a<>b by Th6;
theorem Th8:
a,b ==> c,c implies a=b
proof
assume a,b ==> c,c;
then a # c = b # c by Th5;
hence thesis by RLVECT_1:8;
end;
theorem Th9:
a,b ==> p,q & c,d ==> p,q implies a,b ==> c,d
proof
assume that
A1: a,b ==> p,q and
A2: c,d ==> p,q;
a # q = b # p by A1,Th5;
then a + (q + d) = (b + p) + d by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= b + (p + d) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= b + (c + q) by A2,Th5;
then (a + d) + q = b + (c + q) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= (b + c) + q by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then a + d = b + c by RLVECT_1:8;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
theorem Th10:
ex d st a,b ==> c,d
proof
set d9 = (-a) + (b + c);
take d9;
a + d9 = (a + (-a)) + (b + c) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= 0.ADG + (b + c) by RLVECT_1:5
.= b + c by RLVECT_1:4;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
theorem Th11:
a,b ==> a9,b9 & a,c ==> a9,c9 implies b,c ==> b9,c9
proof
assume a,b ==> a9,b9 & a,c ==> a9,c9;
then a + b9 = b + a9 & a + c9= c + a9 by Th5;
then b + (a9 + (a + c9)) = (c + a9) + (a + b9) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= c + (a9 + (a + b9)) by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then b + ((a9 + a) + c9) = c + (a9 + (a + b9)) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= c + ((a9 + a) + b9) by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then (b + c9) + (a9 + a) = c + (b9 + (a9 + a)) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= (c + b9) + (a9 + a) by RLVECT_1:def 3;
then b + c9 = c + b9 by RLVECT_1:8;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
theorem Th12:
ex b st a,b ==> b,c
proof
consider b being Element of ADG such that
A1: b + b = a + c by Def1;
take b;
thus thesis by A1,Th5;
end;
theorem Th13:
a,b ==> b,c & a,b9 ==> b9,c implies b=b9
proof
assume a,b ==> b,c & a,b9 ==> b9,c;
then a + c = b + b & a + c = b9 + b9 by Th5;
then (b+(-b9))+b = (b9+b9)+(-b9) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= b9 +(b9 +(-b9)) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= b9 + 0.ADG by RLVECT_1:5
.= b9 by RLVECT_1:4;
then
A1: (b+(-b9)) + (b+(-b9)) = b9+ (-b9) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= 0.ADG by RLVECT_1:5;
b9 = 0.ADG + b9 by RLVECT_1:4
.= (b+(-b9))+b9 by A1,VECTSP_1:def 18
.= b+((-b9)+b9) by RLVECT_1:def 3
.= b+0.ADG by RLVECT_1:5
.= b by RLVECT_1:4;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th14:
a,b ==> c,d implies a,c ==> b,d
proof
assume a,b ==> c,d;
then a + d = b + c by Th5;
hence thesis by Th5;
end;
reserve AS for non empty AffinStruct;
theorem Th15:
(ex a,b being Element of ADG st a<>b) implies (ex a,b being
Element of AV(ADG) st a<>b) & (for a,b,c being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // c,c
holds a=b) & (for a,b,c,d,p,q being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // p,q & c,d // p
,q holds a,b // c,d) & (for a,b,c being Element of AV(ADG) ex d being Element
of AV(ADG) st a,b // c,d) & (for a,b,c,a9,b9,c9 being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b
// a9,b9 & a,c // a9,c9 holds b,c // b9,c9) & (for a,c being Element of AV(ADG)
ex b being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // b,c) & (for a,b,c,b9 being Element of
AV(ADG) st a,b // b,c & a,b9 // b9,c holds b = b9) & for a,b,c,d being Element
of AV(ADG) st a,b // c,d holds a,c // b,d
proof
set A = AV(ADG);
assume ex a,b being Element of ADG st a<>b;
hence ex a,b being Element of A st a<>b;
A1: for a9,b9,c9,d9 being Element of A for a,b,c,d st a=a9 & b=b9 & c = c9 &
d=d9 holds (a,b ==> c,d iff a9,b9 // c9,d9)
by ANALOAF:def 2;
thus for a,b,c being Element of A st a,b // c,c holds a=b
proof
let a,b,c be Element of A such that
A2: a,b // c,c;
reconsider a9=a,b9=b,c9 = c as Element of ADG;
a9,b9 ==> c9,c9 by A1,A2;
hence thesis by Th8;
end;
thus for a,b,c,d,p,q being Element of A st a,b // p,q & c,d // p,q holds a,b
// c,d
proof
let a,b,c,d,p,q be Element of A;
reconsider a9=a,b9=b,c9 = c,d9=d,p9=p,q9=q as Element of ADG;
assume a,b // p,q & c,d // p,q;
then a9,b9 ==> p9,q9 & c9,d9 ==> p9,q9 by A1;
then a9,b9 ==> c9,d9 by Th9;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
thus for a,b,c being Element of A ex d being Element of A st a,b // c,d
proof
let a,b,c be Element of A;
reconsider a9=a,b9=b,c9 = c as Element of ADG;
consider d9 being Element of ADG such that
A3: a9,b9 ==> c9,d9 by Th10;
reconsider d = d9 as Element of A;
take d;
thus thesis by A1,A3;
end;
thus for a,b,c,a9,b9,c9 being Element of A st a,b // a9,b9 & a,c // a9,c9
holds b,c // b9,c9
proof
let a,b,c,a9,b9,c9 be Element of A;
reconsider p=a,q=b,r=c,p9=a9,q9=b9,r9=c9 as Element of ADG;
assume a,b // a9,b9 & a,c // a9,c9;
then p,q ==> p9,q9 & p,r ==> p9,r9 by A1;
then q,r ==> q9,r9 by Th11;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
thus for a,c being Element of A ex b being Element of A st a,b // b,c
proof
let a,c be Element of A;
reconsider a9=a,c9=c as Element of ADG;
consider b9 being Element of ADG such that
A4: a9,b9 ==> b9,c9 by Th12;
reconsider b=b9 as Element of A;
take b;
thus thesis by A1,A4;
end;
thus for a,b,c,b9 being Element of A st a,b // b,c & a,b9 // b9,c holds b =
b9
proof
let a,b,c,b9 be Element of A;
reconsider a9=a,p=b,c9=c,p9=b9 as Element of ADG;
assume a,b // b,c & a,b9 // b9,c;
then a9,p ==> p,c9 & a9,p9 ==> p9,c9 by A1;
hence thesis by Th13;
end;
thus for a,b,c,d being Element of A st a,b // c,d holds a,c // b,d
proof
let a,b,c,d be Element of A;
reconsider a9=a,b9=b,c9=c,d9=d as Element of ADG;
assume a,b // c,d;
then a9,b9 ==> c9,d9 by A1;
then a9,c9 ==> b9,d9 by Th14;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
end;
definition
let IT be non empty AffinStruct;
attr IT is AffVect-like means
:Def5:
(for a,b,c being Element of IT st a,b
// c,c holds a=b) & (for a,b,c,d,p,q being Element of IT st a,b // p,q & c,d //
p,q holds a,b // c,d) & (for a,b,c being Element of IT ex d being Element of IT
st a,b // c,d) & (for a,b,c,a9,b9,c9 being Element of IT st a,b // a9,b9 & a,c
// a9,c9 holds b,c // b9,c9) & (for a,c being Element of IT ex b being Element
of IT st a,b // b,c) & (for a,b,c,b9 being Element of IT st a,b // b,c & a,b9
// b9,c holds b = b9) & for a,b,c,d being Element of IT st a,b // c,d holds a,c
// b,d;
end;
registration
cluster strict AffVect-like for non trivial AffinStruct;
existence
proof
consider ADG such that
A1: ex a,b st a<>b by Th6;
A2: ( for a,b,c,a9,b9,c9 being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // a9,b9 & a,c //
a9,c9 holds b,c // b9,c9)& for a,c being Element of AV(ADG) ex b being Element
of AV (ADG) st a,b // b,c by A1,Th15;
A3: ( for a,b,c being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // c,c holds a=b)& for a,b
,c,b9 being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // b,c & a,b9 // b9,c holds b = b9
by Th15;
A4: for a,b,c,d being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // c,d holds a,c // b,d by A1
,Th15;
( for a,b,c,d,p,q being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // p,q & c,d // p,q
holds a,b // c,d)& for a,b,c being Element of AV(ADG) ex d being Element of AV(
ADG) st a,b // c,d by A1,Th15;
then AV(ADG) is non trivial AffVect-like by A1,A2,A3,A4;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
definition
mode AffVect is AffVect-like non trivial AffinStruct;
end;
theorem
for AS holds (ex a,b being Element of AS st a<>b) & (for a,b,c being
Element of AS st a,b // c,c holds a=b) & (for a,b,c,d,p,q being Element of AS
st a,b // p,q & c,d // p,q holds a,b // c,d) & (for a,b,c being Element of AS
ex d being Element of AS st a,b // c,d) & (for a,b,c,a9,b9,c9 being Element of
AS st a,b // a9,b9 & a,c // a9,c9 holds b,c // b9,c9) & (for a,c being Element
of AS ex b being Element of AS st a,b // b,c) & (for a,b,c,b9 being Element of
AS st a,b // b,c & a,b9 // b9,c holds b = b9) & (for a,b,c,d being Element of
AS st a,b // c,d holds a,c // b,d) iff AS is AffVect by Def5,STRUCT_0:def 10;
theorem
(ex a,b being Element of ADG st a<>b) implies AV(ADG) is AffVect
proof
A1: ( for a,b,c being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // c,c holds a=b)& for a,b,c
,b9 being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // b,c & a,b9 // b9,c holds b = b9 by Th15;
assume
A2: ex a,b being Element of ADG st a<>b;
then
A3: ( for a,b,c,a9,b9,c9 being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // a9,b9 & a,c //
a9,c9 holds b,c // b9,c9)& for a,c being Element of AV(ADG) ex b being Element
of AV (ADG) st a,b // b,c by Th15;
A4: for a,b,c,d being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // c,d holds a,c // b,d by A2
,Th15;
( for a,b,c,d,p,q being Element of AV(ADG) st a,b // p,q & c,d // p,q
holds a,b // c,d)& for a,b,c being Element of AV(ADG) ex d being Element of AV(
ADG) st a,b // c,d by A2,Th15;
hence thesis by A2,A3,A1,A4,Def5,STRUCT_0:def 10;
end;