:: On constructing topological spaces and Sorgenfrey line
:: by Grzegorz Bancerek
::
:: Received December 10, 2004
:: Copyright (c) 2004-2016 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies NUMBERS, SETFAM_1, XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, TARSKI, ABIAN, PRE_TOPC,
STRUCT_0, CANTOR_1, RLVECT_3, ZFMISC_1, RELAT_1, PBOOLE, FUNCT_1, CARD_3,
TOPGEN_2, RCOMP_1, YELLOW_8, TOPS_1, XXREAL_1, ARYTM_3, RAT_1, XXREAL_0,
CARD_1, ORDINAL1, LIMFUNC1, CARD_2, INT_1, ARYTM_1, TAXONOM2, CARD_5,
ORDINAL2, FINSET_1, MCART_1, NEWTON, FUNCT_7, SERIES_1, PREPOWER,
COMPLEX1, NAT_1, VALUED_1, FINSUB_1, FINSEQ_1, ARYTM_2, WAYBEL23,
FUNCOP_1, TEX_1, COMPTS_1, TOPGEN_3, REAL_1;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, SETFAM_1, FINSET_1, DOMAIN_1,
FINSUB_1, RELAT_1, RELSET_1, FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, FINSEQ_1, ORDINAL1,
CARD_1, CARD_3, FUNCOP_1, TAXONOM2, CARD_2, CARD_5, ARYTM_3, ARYTM_2,
XCMPLX_0, COMPLEX1, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, NEWTON, INT_1, NAT_1, RAT_1,
NUMBERS, ABIAN, FUNCT_7, VALUED_1, PREPOWER, SERIES_1, RCOMP_1, PBOOLE,
LIMFUNC1, STRUCT_0, PRE_TOPC, TOPS_1, TOPS_2, COMPTS_1, TEX_1, CANTOR_1,
YELLOW_8, WAYBEL23, TOPGEN_2;
constructors DOMAIN_1, ARYTM_2, FINSUB_1, REAL_1, SQUARE_1, CARD_2, PROB_1,
RCOMP_1, LIMFUNC1, NEWTON, PREPOWER, SERIES_1, ABIAN, TOPS_1, COMPTS_1,
TEX_1, TAXONOM2, WAYBEL23, TOPGEN_2, RELSET_1, FINSEQ_2;
registrations XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, ORDINAL1, RELSET_1, FINSET_1, NUMBERS,
XREAL_0, INT_1, RAT_1, CARD_1, MEMBERED, NEWTON, PBOOLE, CARD_5,
STRUCT_0, PRE_TOPC, TOPS_1, TEX_2, VALUED_0, VALUED_1, FUNCT_2, NAT_1,
XTUPLE_0;
requirements BOOLE, SUBSET, NUMERALS, ARITHM, REAL;
definitions TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, FUNCT_1, CARD_3, PRE_TOPC, TAXONOM2, YELLOW_8,
TOPGEN_2;
equalities CARD_3, STRUCT_0, SUBSET_1, COMPTS_1, LIMFUNC1, PROB_1, ORDINAL1,
CARD_1;
expansions TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, CARD_3, PRE_TOPC, SUBSET_1;
theorems TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, XBOOLE_1, SETFAM_1, PRE_TOPC, CANTOR_1, ABIAN,
YELLOW_9, SUBSET_1, ZFMISC_1, CARD_3, CARD_5, FUNCT_1, YELLOW_8, TOPS_1,
FUNCT_2, MSSUBFAM, RAT_1, XREAL_0, CARD_1, NUMBERS, CARD_4, CARD_2,
INT_1, XCMPLX_1, FINSET_1, ORDINAL3, ARYTM_2, ARYTM_3, SERIES_1,
ABSVALUE, PREPOWER, NEWTON, NAT_1, IRRAT_1, ORDINAL1, FINSUB_1, FUNCT_7,
FINSEQ_1, TDLAT_3, FUNCOP_1, TEX_1, XREAL_1, XXREAL_0, WAYBEL23,
VALUED_1, XXREAL_1, RELAT_1, PARTFUN1, TOPS_2, XTUPLE_0;
schemes FUNCT_1, FUNCT_2, NAT_1, CLASSES1;
begin :: Introducing topology
reserve a,b,c for set;
definition
let X be set;
let B be Subset-Family of X;
attr B is point-filtered means
for x,U1,U2 being set st U1 in B & U2
in B & x in U1 /\ U2 ex U being Subset of X st U in B & x in U & U c= U1 /\ U2;
end;
::
theorem Th1: :: (B1)
for X being set, B being Subset-Family of X holds B is covering
iff for x being set st x in X ex U being Subset of X st U in B & x in U
proof
let X be set;
let B be Subset-Family of X;
hereby
assume B is covering;
then
A1: union B = X by ABIAN:4;
let x be set;
assume x in X;
then consider U being set such that
A2: x in U and
A3: U in B by A1,TARSKI:def 4;
reconsider U as Subset of X by A3;
take U;
thus U in B & x in U by A2,A3;
end;
assume
A4: for x being set st x in X ex U being Subset of X st U in B & x in U;
union B = X
proof
thus union B c= X;
let a be object;
assume a in X;
then ex U being Subset of X st U in B & a in U by A4;
hence thesis by TARSKI:def 4;
end;
hence thesis by ABIAN:4;
end;
::
theorem Th2: :: (B2)
for X being set, B being Subset-Family of X st B is
point-filtered covering for T being TopStruct st the carrier of T = X & the
topology of T = UniCl B holds T is TopSpace & B is Basis of T
proof
let X be set;
let B be Subset-Family of X such that
A1: B is point-filtered covering;
let T be TopStruct such that
A2: the carrier of T = X and
A3: the topology of T = UniCl B;
T is TopSpace-like
proof
union B in UniCl B by CANTOR_1:def 1;
hence the carrier of T in the topology of T by A1,A2,A3,ABIAN:4;
hereby
let a be Subset-Family of T;
assume a c= the topology of T;
then union a in UniCl the topology of T by CANTOR_1:def 1;
hence union a in the topology of T by A2,A3,YELLOW_9:15;
end;
let a,b be Subset of T;
set Bc = {c where c is Subset of T: c in B & c c= a/\b};
Bc c= bool X
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Bc;
then ex c being Subset of T st x = c & c in B & c c= a/\b;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider Bc as Subset-Family of T by A2;
assume a in the topology of T;
then consider Ba being Subset-Family of T such that
A4: Ba c= B and
A5: a = union Ba by A2,A3,CANTOR_1:def 1;
assume b in the topology of T;
then consider Bb being Subset-Family of T such that
A6: Bb c= B and
A7: b = union Bb by A2,A3,CANTOR_1:def 1;
A8: union Bc = a /\ b
proof
Bc c= bool (a/\b)
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Bc;
then ex c being Subset of T st x = c & c in B & c c= a/\b;
hence thesis;
end;
then union Bc c= union bool (a/\b) by ZFMISC_1:77;
hence union Bc c= a /\ b by ZFMISC_1:81;
let x be object;
assume
A9: x in a/\b;
then x in a by XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider U1 being set such that
A10: x in U1 and
A11: U1 in Ba by A5,TARSKI:def 4;
x in b by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider U2 being set such that
A12: x in U2 and
A13: U2 in Bb by A7,TARSKI:def 4;
A14: U2 c= b by A7,A13,ZFMISC_1:74;
x in U1/\U2 by A10,A12,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider U being Subset of X such that
A15: U in B and
A16: x in U and
A17: U c= U1 /\ U2 by A4,A11,A6,A13,A1;
U1 c= a by A5,A11,ZFMISC_1:74;
then U1/\U2 c= a/\b by A14,XBOOLE_1:27;
then U c= a/\b by A17;
then U in Bc by A2,A15;
hence thesis by A16,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
Bc c= B
proof
let x be object;
assume x in Bc;
then ex c being Subset of T st x = c & c in B & c c= a/\b;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis by A8,A2,A3,CANTOR_1:def 1;
end;
hence T is TopSpace;
reconsider B9 = B as Subset-Family of T by A2;
B9 c= the topology of T by A3,CANTOR_1:1;
hence thesis by A2,A3,CANTOR_1:def 2,TOPS_2:64;
end;
::
theorem
for X being set, B being non-empty ManySortedSet of X st rng B c= bool
bool X & (for x,U being set st x in X & U in B.x holds x in U) & (for x,y,U
being set st x in U & U in B.y & y in X ex V being set st V in B.x & V c= U) &
(for x,U1,U2 being set st x in X & U1 in B.x & U2 in B.x ex U being set st U in
B.x & U c= U1 /\ U2) ex P being Subset-Family of X st P = Union B & for T being
TopStruct st the carrier of T = X & the topology of T = UniCl P holds T is
TopSpace & for T9 being non empty TopSpace st T9 = T holds B is
Neighborhood_System of T9
proof
let X be set;
let B be non-empty ManySortedSet of X such that
A1: rng B c= bool bool X;
Union B c= union bool bool X by A1,ZFMISC_1:77;
then reconsider P = Union B as Subset-Family of X by ZFMISC_1:81;
A2: dom B = X by PARTFUN1:def 2;
assume
A3: for x,U being set st x in X & U in B.x holds x in U;
assume
A4: for x,y,U being set st x in U & U in B.y & y in X ex V being set st
V in B.x & V c= U;
assume
A5: for x,U1,U2 being set st x in X & U1 in B.x & U2 in B.x ex U being
set st U in B.x & U c= U1 /\ U2;
A6: P is point-filtered
proof
let x,U1,U2 be set;
assume that
A7: U1 in P and
A8: U2 in P and
A9: x in U1 /\ U2;
A10: x in U2 by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
ex y2 being object st y2 in X & U2 in B.y2 by A2,A8,CARD_5:2;
then consider V2 being set such that
A11: V2 in B.x and
A12: V2 c= U2 by A10,A4;
A13: x in U1 by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
ex y1 being object st y1 in X & U1 in B.y1 by A7,A2,CARD_5:2;
then consider V1 being set such that
A14: V1 in B.x and
A15: V1 c= U1 by A13,A4;
A16: x in X by A2,A14,FUNCT_1:def 2;
then consider U being set such that
A17: U in B.x and
A18: U c= V1 /\ V2 by A5,A14,A11;
U in P by A2,A16,A17,CARD_5:2;
then reconsider U as Subset of X;
take U;
thus U in P by A2,A16,A17,CARD_5:2;
thus x in U by A3,A16,A17;
V1/\V2 c= U1/\U2 by A15,A12,XBOOLE_1:27;
hence thesis by A18;
end;
take P;
thus P = Union B;
let T be TopStruct such that
A19: the carrier of T = X and
A20: the topology of T = UniCl P;
now
let x be set;
set U = the Element of B.x;
assume
A21: x in X;
then
A22: U in P by A2,CARD_5:2;
x in U by A3,A21;
hence ex U being Subset of X st U in P & x in U by A22;
end;
then P is covering by Th1;
hence T is TopSpace by A19,A20,A6,Th2;
let T9 be non empty TopSpace;
assume
A23: T9 = T;
then reconsider B9 = B as ManySortedSet of T9 by A19;
B9 is Neighborhood_System of T9
proof
let x be Point of T9;
A24: B9.x in rng B by A2,A19,A23,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then reconsider Bx = B9.x as Subset-Family of T9 by A1,A19,A23;
Bx is Basis of x
proof
A25: P c= UniCl P by CANTOR_1:1;
Bx c= P by A24,ZFMISC_1:74;
then Bx c= the topology of T9 by A25,A20,A23;
then
A26: Bx is open by TOPS_2:64;
Bx is x-quasi_basis
proof
for a st a in Bx holds x in a by A3,A19,A23;
hence x in Intersect Bx by SETFAM_1:43;
let A be Subset of T9;
assume A in the topology of T9;
then consider Y being Subset-Family of T9 such that
A27: Y c= P and
A28: A = union Y by A19,A20,A23,CANTOR_1:def 1;
assume x in A;
then consider a such that
A29: x in a and
A30: a in Y by A28,TARSKI:def 4;
ex b being object st b in dom B & a in B.b by A27,A30,CARD_5:2;
then
A31: ex V being set st V in B.x & V c= a by A4,A29;
a c= A by A28,A30,ZFMISC_1:74;
hence thesis by A31,XBOOLE_1:1;
end;
hence thesis by A26;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
::
theorem Th4:
for X being set, F being Subset-Family of X st {} in F & (for A,B
being set st A in F & B in F holds A \/ B in F) & (for G being Subset-Family of
X st G c= F holds Intersect G in F) for T being TopStruct st the carrier of T =
X & the topology of T = COMPLEMENT F holds T is TopSpace & for A being Subset
of T holds A is closed iff A in F
proof
let X be set;
let F be Subset-Family of X;
assume
A1: {} in F;
set O = COMPLEMENT F;
assume
A2: for A,B being set st A in F & B in F holds A \/ B in F;
assume
A3: for G being Subset-Family of X st G c= F holds Intersect G in F;
let T be TopStruct such that
A4: the carrier of T = X and
A5: the topology of T = O;
T is TopSpace-like
proof
({}T)` in O by A1,A4,SETFAM_1:35;
hence the carrier of T in the topology of T by A5;
hereby
let a be Subset-Family of T;
assume a c= the topology of T;
then COMPLEMENT a c= F by A4,A5,SETFAM_1:37;
then Intersect COMPLEMENT a in F by A3,A4;
then (union a)` in F by YELLOW_8:6;
hence union a in the topology of T by A4,A5,SETFAM_1:def 7;
end;
let a,b be Subset of T;
assume that
A6: a in the topology of T and
A7: b in the topology of T;
A8: b` in F by A7,A4,A5,SETFAM_1:def 7;
a` in F by A6,A4,A5,SETFAM_1:def 7;
then a` \/ b` in F by A8,A2;
then (a /\ b)` in F by XBOOLE_1:54;
hence thesis by A4,A5,SETFAM_1:def 7;
end;
hence T is TopSpace;
let A be Subset of T;
A is closed iff A` is open;
then A is closed iff A` in O by A5;
hence thesis by A4,SETFAM_1:35;
end;
scheme
TopDefByClosedPred{X() -> set, C[set]}: ex T being strict TopSpace st the
carrier of T = X() & for A being Subset of T holds A is closed iff C[A]
provided
A1: C[{}] & C[X()] and
A2: for A,B being set st C[A] & C[B] holds C[A \/ B] and
A3: for G being Subset-Family of X() st for A being set st A in G holds
C[A] holds C[Intersect G]
proof
set X = X();
set F = {A where A is Subset of X: C[A]};
F c= bool X
proof
let a be object;
assume a in F;
then ex B being Subset of X st a = B & C[B];
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider F as Subset-Family of X;
set T = TopStruct(#X, COMPLEMENT F#);
A4: for A,B being set st A in F & B in F holds A \/ B in F
proof
let A,B be set;
assume A in F;
then consider A9 being Subset of X such that
A5: A = A9 and
A6: C[A9];
assume B in F;
then consider B9 being Subset of X such that
A7: B = B9 and
A8: C[B9];
C[A9 \/ B9] by A2,A6,A8;
hence thesis by A5,A7;
end;
A9: for G being Subset-Family of X st G c= F holds Intersect G in F
proof
let G be Subset-Family of X;
assume
A10: G c= F;
now
let A be set;
assume A in G;
then A in F by A10;
then ex B being Subset of X st A = B & C[B];
hence C[A];
end;
then C[Intersect G] by A3;
hence thesis;
end;
{} c= X;
then
A11: {} in F by A1;
then reconsider T as strict TopSpace by A9,A4,Th4;
take T;
thus the carrier of T = X();
let A be Subset of T;
A in F iff ex B being Subset of X st A = B & C[B];
hence thesis by A11,A4,A9,Th4;
end;
Lm1: for T1,T2 being TopSpace st for A being set holds A is open Subset of T1
iff A is open Subset of T2 holds the carrier of T1 = the carrier of T2 & the
topology of T1 c= the topology of T2
proof
let T1,T2 be TopSpace such that
A1: for A being set holds A is open Subset of T1 iff A is open Subset of T2;
the carrier of T2 = [#]T2;
then
A2: the carrier of T2 is Subset of T1 by A1;
the carrier of T1 = [#]T1;
then
A3: the carrier of T1 is Subset of T2 by A1;
hence the carrier of T1 = the carrier of T2 by A2;
let a be object;
assume
A4: a in the topology of T1;
then reconsider a as Subset of T1;
reconsider b = a as Subset of T2 by A3,A2,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
a is open by A4;
then b is open by A1;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem
for T1,T2 being TopSpace st for A being set holds A is open Subset of
T1 iff A is open Subset of T2 holds the TopStruct of T1 = the TopStruct of T2
proof
let T1,T2 be TopSpace such that
A1: for A being set holds A is open Subset of T1 iff A is open Subset of T2;
A2: the topology of T2 c= the topology of T1 by A1,Lm1;
the topology of T1 c= the topology of T2 by A1,Lm1;
then the topology of T1 = the topology of T2 by A2;
hence thesis by A1,Lm1;
end;
Lm2: for T1,T2 being TopSpace st for A being set holds A is closed Subset of
T1 iff A is closed Subset of T2 holds the carrier of T1 = the carrier of T2 &
the topology of T1 c= the topology of T2
proof
let T1,T2 be TopSpace such that
A1: for A being set holds A is closed Subset of T1 iff A is closed
Subset of T2;
the carrier of T2 = [#]T2;
then
A2: the carrier of T2 is Subset of T1 by A1;
the carrier of T1 = [#]T1;
then
A3: the carrier of T1 is Subset of T2 by A1;
hence
A4: the carrier of T1 = the carrier of T2 by A2;
let a be object;
assume
A5: a in the topology of T1;
then reconsider a as Subset of T1;
reconsider b = a as Subset of T2 by A3,A2,XBOOLE_0:def 10;
a is open by A5;
then b` is closed by A1,A4;
then b is open by TOPS_1:4;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th6:
for T1,T2 being TopSpace st for A being set holds A is closed
Subset of T1 iff A is closed Subset of T2 holds the TopStruct of T1 = the
TopStruct of T2
proof
let T1,T2 be TopSpace such that
A1: for A being set holds A is closed Subset of T1 iff A is closed
Subset of T2;
A2: the topology of T2 c= the topology of T1 by A1,Lm2;
the topology of T1 c= the topology of T2 by A1,Lm2;
then the topology of T1 = the topology of T2 by A2;
hence thesis by A1,Lm2;
end;
definition
let X,Y be set;
let r be Subset of [:X, bool Y:];
redefine func rng r -> Subset-Family of Y;
coherence by RELAT_1:def 19;
end;
::
theorem Th7:
for X being set, c being Function of bool X, bool X st c.{} = {}
& (for A being Subset of X holds A c= c.A) & (for A,B being Subset of X holds c
.(A \/ B) = (c.A) \/ (c.B)) & (for A being Subset of X holds c.(c.A) = c.A) for
T being TopStruct st the carrier of T = X & the topology of T = COMPLEMENT rng
c holds T is TopSpace & for A being Subset of T holds Cl A = c.A
proof
let X be set;
let c be Function of bool X, bool X;
assume that
A1: c.{} = {} and
A2: for A being Subset of X holds A c= c.A and
A3: for A,B being Subset of X holds c.(A \/ B) = (c.A) \/ (c.B) and
A4: for A being Subset of X holds c.(c.A) = c.A;
set F = rng c;
A5: dom c = bool X by FUNCT_2:def 1;
A6: now
let A,B be set;
assume that
A7: A in F and
A8: B in F;
consider a being object such that
A9: a in dom c and
A10: A = c.a by A7,FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider b being object such that
A11: b in dom c and
A12: B = c.b by A8,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider a,b as Subset of X by A9,A11;
A\/B = (c.A)\/B by A4,A9,A10
.= (c.A)\/(c.B) by A4,A11,A12
.= c.((c.a)\/(c.b)) by A3,A10,A12;
hence A \/ B in F by A5,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
A13: now
let A,B be Subset of X;
assume A c= B;
then A\/B = B by XBOOLE_1:12;
then c.B = (c.A)\/(c.B) by A3;
hence c.A c= c.B by XBOOLE_1:11;
end;
A14: now
let G be Subset-Family of X such that
A15: G c= F;
now
let a;
assume
A16: a in G;
then reconsider A = a as Subset of X;
A17: c.Intersect G c= c.A by A13,A16,MSSUBFAM:2;
ex b being object st b in dom c & A = c.b by A15,A16,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence c.Intersect G c= a by A17,A4;
end;
then
A18: c.Intersect G c= Intersect G by MSSUBFAM:4;
Intersect G c= c.Intersect G by A2;
then c.Intersect G = Intersect G by A18;
hence Intersect G in F by A5,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
let T be TopStruct such that
A19: the carrier of T = X and
A20: the topology of T = COMPLEMENT F;
{} = {}X;
then
A21: {} in F by A1,A5,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence
A22: T is TopSpace by A14,A19,A20,A6,Th4;
let A be Subset of T;
reconsider B = A, ClA = Cl A as Subset of X by A19;
reconsider cB = c.B as Subset of T by A19;
cB in F by A5,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then cB is closed by A19,A20,A21,A6,A14,Th4;
hence Cl A c= c.A by A2,TOPS_1:5;
ClA in F by A22,A19,A20,A21,A6,A14,Th4;
then ex a being object st a in dom c & ClA = c.a by FUNCT_1:def 3;
then c.ClA = ClA by A4;
hence thesis by A19,A13,PRE_TOPC:18;
end;
scheme
TopDefByClosureOp{X() -> set, ClOp(object) -> set}:
ex T being strict TopSpace
st the carrier of T = X() & for A being Subset of T holds Cl A = ClOp(A)
provided
A1: ClOp({}) = {} and
A2: for A being Subset of X() holds A c= ClOp(A) & ClOp(A) c= X() and
A3: for A,B being Subset of X() holds ClOp(A \/ B) = ClOp(A) \/ ClOp(B) and
A4: for A being Subset of X() holds ClOp(ClOp(A)) = ClOp(A)
proof
set X = X();
consider c being Function such that
A5: dom c = bool X & for a st a in bool X holds c.a = ClOp(a) from
FUNCT_1:sch 5;
now
let a be object;
assume
A6: a in bool X;
then
A7: ClOp(a) c= X by A2;
c.a = ClOp(a) by A6,A5;
hence c.a in bool X by A7;
end;
then reconsider c as Function of bool X, bool X by A5,FUNCT_2:3;
A8: for A being Subset of X holds A c= c.A
proof
let A be Subset of X;
c.A = ClOp(A) by A5;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
A9: for A,B being Subset of X holds c.(A \/ B) = (c.A) \/ (c.B)
proof
let A,B be Subset of X;
A10: c.B = ClOp(B) by A5;
A11: ClOp(A\/B) = c.(A \/ B) by A5;
c.A = ClOp(A) by A5;
hence thesis by A10,A11,A3;
end;
A12: for A being Subset of X holds c.(c.A) = c.A
proof
let A be Subset of X;
A13: ClOp(c.A) = c.(c.A) by A5;
c.A = ClOp(A) by A5;
hence thesis by A13,A4;
end;
{} c= X;
then
A14: c.{} = {} by A1,A5;
then reconsider
T = TopStruct(#X, COMPLEMENT rng c#) as strict TopSpace by A12,A8,A9,Th7;
take T;
thus the carrier of T = X;
let A be Subset of T;
thus Cl A = c.A by A14,A8,A9,A12,Th7
.= ClOp(A) by A5;
end;
theorem Th8:
for T1,T2 being TopSpace st the carrier of T1 = the carrier of T2
& for A1 being Subset of T1, A2 being Subset of T2 st A1 = A2 holds Cl A1 = Cl
A2 holds the topology of T1 = the topology of T2
proof
let T1,T2 be TopSpace such that
A1: the carrier of T1 = the carrier of T2 and
A2: for A1 being Subset of T1, A2 being Subset of T2 st A1 = A2 holds Cl
A1 = Cl A2;
now
let A be set;
thus A is closed Subset of T1 implies A is closed Subset of T2
proof
assume A is closed Subset of T1;
then reconsider A1 = A as closed Subset of T1;
reconsider A2 = A1 as Subset of T2 by A1;
Cl A1 = A1 by PRE_TOPC:22;
then Cl A2 = A2 by A2;
hence thesis;
end;
assume A is closed Subset of T2;
then reconsider A2 = A as closed Subset of T2;
reconsider A1 = A2 as Subset of T1 by A1;
Cl A2 = A2 by PRE_TOPC:22;
then Cl A1 = A1 by A2;
hence A is closed Subset of T1;
end;
then the TopStruct of T1 = the TopStruct of T2 by Th6;
hence thesis;
end;
::
theorem Th9:
for X being set, i being Function of bool X, bool X st i.X = X &
(for A being Subset of X holds i.A c= A) & (for A,B being Subset of X holds i.(
A /\ B) = (i.A) /\ (i.B)) & (for A being Subset of X holds i.(i.A) = i.A) for T
being TopStruct st the carrier of T = X & the topology of T = rng i holds T is
TopSpace & for A being Subset of T holds Int A = i.A
proof
let X be set;
let c be Function of bool X, bool X such that
A1: c.X = X and
A2: for A being Subset of X holds c.A c= A and
A3: for A,B being Subset of X holds c.(A /\ B) = (c.A) /\ (c.B) and
A4: for A being Subset of X holds c.(c.A) = c.A;
set F = rng c;
let T be TopStruct such that
A5: the carrier of T = X and
A6: the topology of T = rng c;
A7: dom c = bool X by FUNCT_2:def 1;
A8: now
let A,B be Subset of T;
assume that
A9: A in F and
A10: B in F;
consider a being object such that
A11: a in dom c and
A12: A = c.a by A9,FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider b being object such that
A13: b in dom c and
A14: B = c.b by A10,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider a,b as Subset of X by A11,A13;
A/\B = (c.A)/\B by A4,A11,A12
.= (c.A)/\(c.B) by A4,A13,A14
.= c.((c.a)/\(c.b)) by A3,A12,A14;
hence A /\ B in F by A7,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
A15: now
let A,B be Subset of X;
assume A c= B;
then A/\B = A by XBOOLE_1:28;
then c.A = (c.A)/\(c.B) by A3;
hence c.A c= c.B by XBOOLE_1:17;
end;
A16: now
let G be Subset-Family of X such that
A17: G c= F;
now
let a;
assume
A18: a in G;
then reconsider A = a as Subset of X;
A19: c.A c= c.union G by A15,A18,ZFMISC_1:74;
ex b being object st b in dom c & A = c.b by A17,A18,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence a c= c.union G by A19,A4;
end;
then
A20: union G c= c.union G by ZFMISC_1:76;
c.union G c= union G by A2;
then c.union G = union G by A20;
hence union G in F by A7,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
X in F by A1,A7,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence
A21: T is TopSpace by A16,A5,A6,A8,PRE_TOPC:def 1;
let A be Subset of T;
reconsider B = A, IntA = Int A as Subset of X by A5;
IntA in F by A21,A6,PRE_TOPC:def 2;
then ex a being object st a in dom c & IntA = c.a by FUNCT_1:def 3;
then c.IntA = IntA by A4;
hence Int A c= c.A by A5,A15,TOPS_1:16;
reconsider cB = c.B as Subset of T by A5;
cB in F by A7,FUNCT_1:def 3;
then cB is open by A6;
hence thesis by A2,TOPS_1:24;
end;
scheme
TopDefByInteriorOp{X() -> set, IntOp(object) -> set}:
ex T being strict
TopSpace st the carrier of T = X() & for A being Subset of T holds Int A =
IntOp(A)
provided
A1: IntOp(X()) = X() and
A2: for A being Subset of X() holds IntOp(A) c= A and
A3: for A,B being Subset of X() holds IntOp(A /\ B) = IntOp(A) /\ IntOp( B) and
A4: for A being Subset of X() holds IntOp(IntOp(A)) = IntOp(A)
proof
set X = X();
consider c being Function such that
A5: dom c = bool X & for a st a in bool X holds c.a = IntOp(a) from
FUNCT_1:sch 5;
now
let a be object;
assume
A6: a in bool X;
reconsider aa=a as set by TARSKI:1;
A7: IntOp(a) c= aa by A2,A6;
c.a = IntOp(a) by A6,A5;
then c.a c= X by A7,A6,XBOOLE_1:1;
hence c.a in bool X;
end;
then reconsider c as Function of bool X, bool X by A5,FUNCT_2:3;
A8: for A being Subset of X holds c.A c= A
proof
let A be Subset of X;
c.A = IntOp(A) by A5;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
A9: for A,B being Subset of X holds c.(A /\ B) = (c.A) /\ (c.B)
proof
let A,B be Subset of X;
A10: c.B = IntOp(B) by A5;
A11: IntOp(A/\B) = c.(A /\ B) by A5;
c.A = IntOp(A) by A5;
hence thesis by A10,A11,A3;
end;
A12: for A being Subset of X holds c.(c.A) = c.A
proof
let A be Subset of X;
A13: IntOp(c.A) = c.(c.A) by A5;
c.A = IntOp(A) by A5;
hence thesis by A13,A4;
end;
A14: c.X = X by A1,A5;
then reconsider T = TopStruct(#X, rng c#) as strict TopSpace by A12,A8,A9,Th9
;
take T;
thus the carrier of T = X;
let A be Subset of T;
thus Int A = c.A by A14,A8,A9,A12,Th9
.= IntOp(A) by A5;
end;
theorem Th10:
for T1,T2 being TopSpace st the carrier of T1 = the carrier of
T2 & for A1 being Subset of T1, A2 being Subset of T2 st A1 = A2 holds Int A1 =
Int A2 holds the topology of T1 = the topology of T2
proof
let T1,T2 be TopSpace such that
A1: the carrier of T1 = the carrier of T2 and
A2: for A1 being Subset of T1, A2 being Subset of T2 st A1 = A2 holds
Int A1 = Int A2;
now
let A1 be Subset of T1, A2 be Subset of T2;
assume A1 = A2;
then Int A1` = Int A2` by A1,A2;
hence Cl A1 = (Int A2`)` by A1,TDLAT_3:1
.= Cl A2 by TDLAT_3:1;
end;
hence thesis by A1,Th8;
end;
begin :: Sorgenfrey line (1.2.2)
definition
::$N Sorgenfrey line
func Sorgenfrey-line -> strict non empty TopSpace means
: Def2:
the carrier
of it = REAL & ex B being Subset-Family of REAL st the topology of it = UniCl B
& B = {[.x,q.[ where x,q is Real: x < q & q is rational};
uniqueness;
existence
proof
set B = {[.x,q.[ where x,q is Real: x < q & q is rational};
B c= bool REAL
proof
let a be object;
assume a in B;
then
ex x,q being Real st a = [.x,q.[ & x < q & q is rational;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider B as Subset-Family of REAL;
A1: B is point-filtered
proof
let x,U1,U2 being set such that
A2: U1 in B and
A3: U2 in B and
A4: x in U1 /\ U2;
consider x1,q1 being Real such that
A5: U1 = [.x1,q1.[ and
A6: x1 < q1 and
A7: q1 is rational by A2;
consider x2,q2 being Real such that
A8: U2 = [.x2,q2.[ and
A9: x2 < q2 and
A10: q2 is rational by A3;
set y = max(x1,x2), q = min(q1,q2);
A11: q is rational by A7,A10,XXREAL_0:15;
A12: x in U1 by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then reconsider x9 = x as Element of REAL by A5;
A13: x in U2 by A4,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A14: x2 <= x9 by A8,XXREAL_1:3;
A15: x9 < q2 by A8,A13,XXREAL_1:3;
A16: q <= q2 by XXREAL_0:17;
x2 <= y by XXREAL_0:31;
then
A17: [.y,q.[ c= U2 by A16,A8,XXREAL_1:38;
A18: q <= q1 by XXREAL_0:17;
x1 <= y by XXREAL_0:31;
then
A19: [.y,q.[ c= U1 by A18,A5,XXREAL_1:38;
A20: x1 <= x9 by A5,A12,XXREAL_1:3;
then x1 < q2 by A15,XXREAL_0:2;
then
A21: y < q2 by A9,XXREAL_0:29;
A22: x9 < q1 by A5,A12,XXREAL_1:3;
then
A23: x9 < q by A15,XXREAL_0:15;
x2 < q1 by A14,A22,XXREAL_0:2;
then y < q1 by A6,XXREAL_0:29;
then y < q by A21,XXREAL_0:15;
then
A24: [.y,q.[ in B by A11;
y <= x9 by A20,A14,XXREAL_0:28;
then x9 in [.y,q.[ by A23,XXREAL_1:3;
hence thesis by A24,A19,A17,XBOOLE_1:19;
end;
now
let x be set;
assume x in REAL;
then reconsider x9 = x as Element of REAL;
x9+0 < x9+1 by XREAL_1:6;
then consider q being Rational such that
A25: x9 < q and
q < x9+1 by RAT_1:7;
take U = [.x9,q.[;
thus U in B by A25;
thus x in U by A25,XXREAL_1:3;
end;
then B is covering by Th1;
then TopStruct(#REAL, UniCl B#) is non empty TopSpace by A1,Th2;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
Lm3: the carrier of Sorgenfrey-line = REAL by Def2;
consider BB being Subset-Family of REAL such that
Lm4: the topology of Sorgenfrey-line = UniCl BB and
Lm5: BB = {[.x,q.[ where x,q is Real: x < q & q is rational} by Def2;
BB c= the topology of Sorgenfrey-line by Lm4,CANTOR_1:1;
then
Lm6: BB is Basis of Sorgenfrey-line by Lm3,Lm4,CANTOR_1:def 2,TOPS_2:64;
theorem Th11:
for x,y being Real holds [.x,y.[ is open Subset of Sorgenfrey-line
proof
let x,y be Real;
reconsider V = [.x,y.[ as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
now
let p be Point of Sorgenfrey-line;
reconsider a = p as Element of REAL by Def2;
assume
A1: p in [.x,y.[;
then
A2: x <= a by XXREAL_1:3;
a < y by A1,XXREAL_1:3;
then consider q being Rational such that
A3: a < q and
A4: q < y by RAT_1:7;
reconsider U = [.x,q.[ as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
take U;
x < q by A2,A3,XXREAL_0:2;
hence U in BB by Lm5;
thus p in U by A2,A3,XXREAL_1:3;
thus U c= V by A4,XXREAL_1:38;
end;
hence thesis by Lm6,YELLOW_9:31;
end;
theorem
for x,y being Real holds ].x,y.[ is open Subset of Sorgenfrey-line
proof
let x,y be Real;
reconsider V = ].x,y.[ as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
now
let p be Point of Sorgenfrey-line;
reconsider a = p as Element of REAL by Def2;
assume
A1: p in V;
then a < y by XXREAL_1:4;
then consider q being Rational such that
A2: a < q and
A3: q < y by RAT_1:7;
reconsider U = [.a,q.[ as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
take U;
thus U in BB by A2,Lm5;
thus p in U by A2,XXREAL_1:3;
x < a by A1,XXREAL_1:4;
hence U c= V by A3,XXREAL_1:48;
end;
hence thesis by Lm6,YELLOW_9:31;
end;
theorem
for x being Real holds left_open_halfline x is open Subset of
Sorgenfrey-line
proof
let x be Real;
reconsider V = left_open_halfline x as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
now
let p be Point of Sorgenfrey-line;
reconsider a = p as Element of REAL by Def2;
assume
A1: p in V;
then
A2: {a} c= V by ZFMISC_1:31;
a < x by A1,XXREAL_1:233;
then consider q being Rational such that
A3: a < q and
A4: q < x by RAT_1:7;
reconsider U = [.a,q.[ as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
take U;
thus U in BB by A3,Lm5;
thus p in U by A3,XXREAL_1:3;
A5: ].a,q.[ c= V by A4,XXREAL_1:263;
U = {a}\/].a,q.[ by A3,XXREAL_1:131;
hence U c= V by A2,A5,XBOOLE_1:8;
end;
hence thesis by Lm6,YELLOW_9:31;
end;
theorem
for x being Real holds right_open_halfline x is open Subset of
Sorgenfrey-line
proof
let x be Real;
reconsider V = right_open_halfline x as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
now
let p be Point of Sorgenfrey-line;
reconsider a = p as Element of REAL by Def2;
assume
A1: p in V;
then
A2: {a} c= V by ZFMISC_1:31;
a+0 < a+1 by XREAL_1:6;
then consider q being Rational such that
A3: a < q and
q < a+1 by RAT_1:7;
reconsider U = [.a,q.[ as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
take U;
thus U in BB by A3,Lm5;
thus p in U by A3,XXREAL_1:3;
a > x by A1,XXREAL_1:235;
then
A4: ].a,q.[ c= V by XXREAL_1:247;
U = {a}\/].a,q.[ by A3,XXREAL_1:131;
hence U c= V by A2,A4,XBOOLE_1:8;
end;
hence thesis by Lm6,YELLOW_9:31;
end;
theorem
for x being Real holds right_closed_halfline x is open Subset
of Sorgenfrey-line
proof
let x be Real;
reconsider V = right_closed_halfline x as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
now
let p be Point of Sorgenfrey-line;
reconsider a = p as Element of REAL by Def2;
a+0 < a+1 by XREAL_1:6;
then consider q being Rational such that
A1: a < q and
q < a+1 by RAT_1:7;
a in [.a,q.] by A1,XXREAL_1:1;
then
A2: {a} c= [.a,q.] by ZFMISC_1:31;
reconsider U = [.a,q.[ as Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Def2;
assume p in V;
then a >= x by XXREAL_1:236;
then
A3: [.a,q.] c= V by XXREAL_1:251;
take U;
thus U in BB by A1,Lm5;
thus p in U by A1,XXREAL_1:3;
A4: ].a,q.[ c= [.a, q .] by XXREAL_1:37;
U = {a}\/].a,q.[ by A1,XXREAL_1:131;
then U c= [.a,q.] by A2,A4,XBOOLE_1:8;
hence U c= V by A3;
end;
hence thesis by Lm6,YELLOW_9:31;
end;
theorem Th16:
card INT = omega
proof
A1: card INT c= card (NAT \/ [:{0},NAT:]) by CARD_1:11,NUMBERS:def 4;
A2: card [:NAT,{0}:] = card [:{0},NAT:] by CARD_2:4;
A3: card [:NAT,{0}:] = card NAT by CARD_1:69;
omega+`(omega qua cardinal number) = omega by CARD_2:75;
then card (NAT \/ [:{0},NAT:]) c= omega by A3,A2,CARD_2:34;
hence card INT c= omega by A1;
thus thesis by CARD_1:11,47,NUMBERS:17;
end;
::$N The Denumerability of the Rational Numbers
theorem Th17:
card RAT = omega
proof
defpred P[object,object] means
ex i being Integer, n being Nat
st $1 = [i,n] & $2 = i/n;
A1: for a being object st a in [:INT,NAT:] ex b being object st P[a,b]
proof let a be object;
assume a in [:INT,NAT:];
then consider x,y being object such that
A2: x in INT and
A3: y in NAT and
A4: a = [x,y] by ZFMISC_1:def 2;
reconsider y as Nat by A3;
reconsider x as Integer by A2;
x/y = x/y;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
consider f being Function such that
A5: dom f = [:INT,NAT:] &
for a being object st a in [:INT,NAT:] holds P[a,f.a] from
CLASSES1:sch 1(A1);
A6: RAT c= rng f
proof
let a be object;
assume a in RAT;
then consider i,j being Integer such that
A7: a = i/j by RAT_1:def 1;
consider n being Nat such that
A8: j = n or j = -n by INT_1:2;
i/-n = -i/n by XCMPLX_1:188;
then a = i/n or a = (-i)/n by A7,A8,XCMPLX_1:187;
then consider k being Integer such that
A9: a = k/n;
k in INT & n in NAT by INT_1:def 2, ORDINAL1:def 12;
then
A10: [k,n] in [:INT,NAT:] by ZFMISC_1:def 2;
then consider i1 being Integer, n1 being Nat such that
A11: [k,n] = [i1,n1] and
A12: f. [k,n] = i1/n1 by A5;
A13: n = n1 by A11,XTUPLE_0:1;
i1 = k by A11,XTUPLE_0:1;
hence thesis by A13,A5,A9,A10,A12,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
card [:INT,NAT:] = card [:omega,omega:] by Th16,CARD_2:7
.= omega by CARD_2:def 2,CARD_4:6;
hence card RAT c= omega by A5,A6,CARD_1:12;
thus omega c= card RAT by CARD_1:11,47,NUMBERS:18;
end;
theorem Th18:
for A being set st A is mutually-disjoint & for a st a in A ex x
,y being Real st x < y & ].x,y.[ c= a holds A is countable
proof
defpred P[object,object] means ex D1 being set st D1 = $1 & $2 in D1;
let A be set such that
A1: for a,b st a in A & b in A & a <> b holds a misses b;
assume
A2: a in A implies ex x,y being Real st x < y & ].x,y.[ c= a;
A3: now
let a be object;
reconsider aa=a as set by TARSKI:1;
assume a in A;
then consider x,y being Real such that
A4: x < y and
A5: ].x,y.[ c= aa by A2;
consider q being Rational such that
A6: x < q and
A7: q < y by A4,RAT_1:7;
A8: q in RAT by RAT_1:def 2;
q in ].x,y.[ by A6,A7,XXREAL_1:4;
hence ex q being object st q in RAT & P[a,q] by A5,A8;
end;
consider f being Function such that
A9: dom f = A & rng f c= RAT and
A10: for a being object st a in A holds P[a,f.a] from FUNCT_1:sch 6(A3);
f is one-to-one
proof
let a,b be object;
assume that
A11: a in dom f and
A12: b in dom f and
A13: f.a = f.b and
A14: a <> b;
reconsider a,b as set by TARSKI:1;
P[b,f.b] by A12,A9,A10;
then
A15: f.a in b by A13;
P[a,f.a] by A11,A9,A10;
then
A16: f.a in a;
a misses b by A11,A12,A14,A1,A9;
hence thesis by A16,A15,XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
then card A c= card RAT by A9,CARD_1:10;
hence thesis by Th17;
end;
definition
let X be set;
let x be Real;
pred x is_local_minimum_of X means
x in X & ex y being Real st y < x & ].y,x.[ misses X;
end;
theorem Th19:
for U being Subset of REAL holds {x where x is Element of REAL:
x is_local_minimum_of U} is countable
proof
let U be Subset of REAL;
set X = {x where x is Element of REAL: x is_local_minimum_of U};
defpred P[object,object] means
ex x,y being Real st $1 = x & $2 = ].y,x.[ &
y < x & ].y,x.[ misses U;
A1: now
let a be object;
assume a in X;
then consider x being Element of REAL such that
A2: a = x and
A3: x is_local_minimum_of U;
ex y being Real st y < x & ].y,x.[ misses U by A3;
hence ex b being object st b in bool REAL & P[a,b] by A2;
end;
consider f being Function such that
A4: dom f = X & rng f c= bool REAL and
A5: for a being object st a in X holds P[a,f.a] from FUNCT_1:sch 6(A1);
f is one-to-one
proof
let a9,b9 being object;
set a = f.a9, b = f.b9;
assume that
A6: a9 in dom f and
A7: b9 in dom f;
consider xb,yb being Real such that
A8: b9 = xb and
A9: b = ].yb,xb.[ and
yb < xb and
A10: ].yb,xb.[ misses U by A4,A5,A7;
ex x being Element of REAL st xb = x & x is_local_minimum_of U by A4,A7,A8;
then
A11: xb in U;
assume that
A12: a = b and
A13: a9 <> b9;
consider xa,ya being Real such that
A14: a9 = xa and
A15: a = ].ya,xa.[ and
A16: ya < xa and
A17: ].ya,xa.[ misses U by A4,A5,A6;
consider c being Rational such that
A18: ya < c and
A19: c < xa by A16,RAT_1:7;
A20: c in a by A15,A18,A19,XXREAL_1:4;
then
A21: c < xb by A9,A12,XXREAL_1:4;
ex x being Element of REAL st xa = x & x is_local_minimum_of U by A4,A6,A14
;
then
A22: xa in U;
yb < c by A9,A12,A20,XXREAL_1:4;
then yb < xa & xa < xb or xa > xb & xb > ya by A19,A18,A21,A14,A8,A13,
XXREAL_0:1,2;
then xa in b or xb in a by A15,A9,XXREAL_1:4;
hence thesis by A15,A17,A9,A10,A11,A22,XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
then
A23: card X c= card rng f by A4,CARD_1:10;
A24: rng f is mutually-disjoint
proof
let a,b;
assume a in rng f;
then consider a9 being object such that
A25: a9 in dom f and
A26: a = f.a9 by FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider xa,ya being Real such that
A27: a9 = xa and
A28: a = ].ya,xa.[ and
ya < xa and
A29: ].ya,xa.[ misses U by A4,A5,A25,A26;
ex x being Element of REAL st xa = x & x is_local_minimum_of U by A4,A25
,A27;
then
A30: xa in U;
assume b in rng f;
then consider b9 being object such that
A31: b9 in dom f and
A32: b = f.b9 by FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider xb,yb being Real such that
A33: b9 = xb and
A34: b = ].yb,xb.[ and
yb < xb and
A35: ].yb,xb.[ misses U by A4,A5,A31,A32;
assume that
A36: a <> b and
A37: a meets b;
consider c being object such that
A38: c in a and
A39: c in b by A37,XBOOLE_0:3;
reconsider c as Element of REAL by A28,A38;
A40: c < xa by A28,A38,XXREAL_1:4;
ex x being Element of REAL st xb = x & x is_local_minimum_of U by A4,A31
,A33;
then
A41: xb in U;
A42: c < xb by A34,A39,XXREAL_1:4;
A43: ya < c by A28,A38,XXREAL_1:4;
yb < c by A34,A39,XXREAL_1:4;
then yb < xa & xa < xb or xa > xb & xb > ya by A40,A43,A42,A26,A32,A27,A33
,A36,XXREAL_0:1,2;
then xa in b or xb in a by A28,A34,XXREAL_1:4;
hence thesis by A28,A29,A34,A35,A41,A30,XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
now
let a;
assume a in rng f;
then consider b being object such that
A44: b in dom f and
A45: a = f.b by FUNCT_1:def 3;
consider x,y being Real such that
b = x and
A46: a = ].y,x.[ and
A47: y < x and
].y,x.[ misses U by A4,A5,A44,A45;
take y,x;
thus y < x & ].y,x.[ c= a by A46,A47;
end;
then rng f is countable by A24,Th18;
then card rng f c= omega;
hence card X c= omega by A23;
end;
registration
let M be Aleph;
cluster exp(2,M) -> infinite;
coherence
proof
card M = M;
then exp(2,M) = card bool M by CARD_2:31;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
definition
func continuum -> infinite cardinal number equals
card REAL;
coherence;
end;
theorem Th20:
card {[.x,q.[ where x,q is Real: x < q & q is rational} = continuum
proof
defpred P[object,object] means
ex x being Element of REAL, q being Element of REAL
st $1 = x & $2 = [.x,q.[ & x < q & q is rational;
deffunc F(Element of [:REAL,RAT:]) = [.$1`1,$1`2.[;
set X = {[.x,q.[ where x,q is Real: x < q & q is rational};
consider f being Function such that
A1: dom f = [:REAL,RAT:] and
A2: for z being Element of [:REAL,RAT:] holds f.z = F(z) from FUNCT_1: sch 4;
A3: X c= rng f
proof
let a be object;
assume a in X;
then consider x,q being Real such that
A4: a = [.x,q.[ and
x < q and
A5: q is rational;
x in REAL & q in RAT by A5,RAT_1:def 2,XREAL_0:def 1;
then reconsider b = [x,q] as Element of [:REAL,RAT:] by ZFMISC_1:def 2;
A6: b`2 = q;
b`1 = x;
then f.b = [.x,q.[ by A6,A2;
hence thesis by A1,A4,FUNCT_1:def 3;
end;
card omega c= card REAL by CARD_1:11,NUMBERS:19;
then
A7: omega c= continuum;
card [:REAL,RAT:] = card [:card REAL, card RAT:] by CARD_2:7
.= continuum *` omega by Th17,CARD_2:def 2
.= continuum by A7,CARD_4:16;
hence card X c= continuum by A1,A3,CARD_1:12;
A8: for a being object st a in REAL
ex b being object st b in X & P[a,b]
proof let a be object;
assume a in REAL;
then reconsider x = a as Element of REAL;
x+0 < x+1 by XREAL_1:6;
then consider q being Rational such that
A9: x < q and
q < x+1 by RAT_1:7;
q in RAT by RAT_1:def 2;
then reconsider q as Element of REAL by NUMBERS:12;
[.x,q.[ in X by A9;
hence thesis by A9;
end;
consider f being Function such that
A10: dom f = REAL & rng f c= X &
for a being object st a in REAL holds P[a,f.a] from
FUNCT_1:sch 6(A8);
f is one-to-one
proof
let a,b be object;
assume a in dom f;
then consider x being Element of REAL, q being Element of REAL such that
A11: a = x and
A12: f.a = [.x,q.[ and
A13: x < q and
q is rational by A10;
assume b in dom f;
then consider y being Element of REAL, r being Element of REAL such that
A14: b = y and
A15: f.b = [.y,r.[ and
A16: y < r and
r is rational by A10;
assume
A17: f.a = f.b;
then y in [.x,q.[ by A12,A15,A16,XXREAL_1:3;
then
A18: x <= y by XXREAL_1:3;
x in [.y,r.[ by A17,A12,A13,A15,XXREAL_1:3;
then y <= x by XXREAL_1:3;
hence thesis by A18,A11,A14,XXREAL_0:1;
end;
hence thesis by A10,CARD_1:10;
end;
definition
let X be set, r being Real;
func X-powers r -> sequence of REAL means
: Def5:
for i being Nat holds i in X & it.i = r|^i or not i in X & it.i = 0;
existence
proof
deffunc G(object) = 0;
deffunc F(object) = r|^In($1,NAT);
defpred C[object] means $1 in X;
A1: for a being object st a in NAT
holds (C[a] implies F(a) in REAL) & (not C[a]
implies G(a) in REAL) by XREAL_0:def 1;
consider f being sequence of REAL such that
A2: for a being object st a in NAT
holds (C[a] implies f.a = F(a)) & (not C[a]
implies f.a = G(a)) from FUNCT_2:sch 5(A1);
take f;
let i be Nat;
In(i,NAT) = i;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
uniqueness
proof
let f1,f2 be sequence of REAL such that
A3: for i being Nat holds i in X & f1.i = r|^i or not i in
X & f1.i = 0 and
A4: for i being Nat holds i in X & f2.i = r|^i or not i in
X & f2.i = 0;
now
let i be Element of NAT;
i in X & f1.i = r|^i or not i in X & f1.i = 0 by A3;
hence f1.i = f2.i by A4;
end;
hence thesis by FUNCT_2:63;
end;
end;
theorem Th21:
for X being set, r being Real st 0 < r & r < 1 holds X
-powers r is summable
proof
let X be set, r be Real such that
A1: 0 < r and
A2: r < 1;
A3: now
let n be Nat;
n in X & (X-powers r).n = r|^n or not n in X & (X-powers r).n = 0 by Def5;
hence 0 <= (X-powers r).n by A1,PREPOWER:6;
end;
A4: now
reconsider m = 1 as Nat;
take m;
let n be Nat such that
m <= n;
A5: (r GeoSeq).n = r|^n by PREPOWER:def 1;
n in X & (X-powers r).n = r|^n or not n in X & (X-powers r).n = 0 by Def5;
hence (X-powers r).n <= (r GeoSeq).n by A1,A5,PREPOWER:6;
end;
|.r.| = r by A1,ABSVALUE:def 1;
then r GeoSeq is summable by A2,SERIES_1:24;
hence thesis by A4,A3,SERIES_1:19;
end;
reserve r for Real,
X for set,
n for Element of NAT;
theorem Th22:
0 < r & r < 1 implies Sum ((r GeoSeq)^\n) = r|^n / (1-r)
proof
assume that
A1: 0 < r and
A2: r < 1;
A3: |.r.| = r by A1,ABSVALUE:def 1;
then
A4: r GeoSeq is summable by A2,SERIES_1:24;
A5: dom ((r|^n)(#)(r GeoSeq)) = NAT by FUNCT_2:def 1;
now
let i being Element of NAT;
thus ((r GeoSeq)^\n).i = (r GeoSeq).(i+n) by NAT_1:def 3
.= r|^(i+n) by PREPOWER:def 1
.= (r|^n)*(r|^i) by NEWTON:8
.= (r|^n)*((r GeoSeq).i) by PREPOWER:def 1
.= ((r|^n)(#)(r GeoSeq)).i by A5,VALUED_1:def 5;
end;
then
A6: (r GeoSeq)^\n = (r|^n)(#)(r GeoSeq) by FUNCT_2:63;
Sum (r GeoSeq) = 1/(1-r) by A3,A2,SERIES_1:24;
hence Sum ((r GeoSeq)^\n) = r|^n *(1/(1-r)) by A4,A6,SERIES_1:10
.= (r|^n*1) / (1-r) by XCMPLX_1:74
.= (r|^n) / (1-r);
end;
theorem Th23:
Sum (((1/2) GeoSeq)^\(n+1)) = (1/2)|^n
proof
set r = 1/2;
thus Sum (((1/2) GeoSeq)^\(n+1)) = (r|^(n+1)) / (1-r) by Th22
.= (1/2)|^n*r/r by NEWTON:6
.= r|^n;
end;
theorem
0 < r & r < 1 implies Sum (X-powers r) <= Sum (r GeoSeq)
proof
assume that
A1: 0 < r and
A2: r < 1;
A3: now
let n be Nat;
A4: n in X & (X-powers r).n = r|^n or not n in X & (X-powers r).n = 0 by Def5;
hence 0 <= (X-powers r).n by A1,PREPOWER:6;
(r GeoSeq).n = r|^n by PREPOWER:def 1;
hence (X-powers r).n <= (r GeoSeq).n by A1,A4,PREPOWER:6;
end;
|.r.| = r by A1,ABSVALUE:def 1;
then r GeoSeq is summable by A2,SERIES_1:24;
hence thesis by A3,SERIES_1:20;
end;
theorem Th25:
Sum ((X-powers (1/2))^\(n+1)) <= (1/2)|^n
proof
set r = 1/2;
|.r.| = r by ABSVALUE:def 1;
then
A1: (r GeoSeq)^\(n+1) is summable by SERIES_1:12,24;
A2: now
let m be Nat;
A3: ((X-powers r)^\(n+1)).m = (X-powers r).(m+(n+1)) by NAT_1:def 3;
A4: m+(n+1) in X & (X-powers r).(m+(n+1)) = r|^(m+(n+1)) or not m+(n+1) in
X & (X-powers r).(m+(n+1)) = 0 by Def5;
hence 0 <= ((X-powers r)^\(n+1)).m by A3,PREPOWER:6;
A5: (r GeoSeq).(m+(n+1)) = r|^(m+(n+1)) by PREPOWER:def 1;
((r GeoSeq)^\(n+1)).m = (r GeoSeq).(m+(n+1)) by NAT_1:def 3;
hence ((X-powers r)^\(n+1)).m <= ((r GeoSeq)^\(n+1)).m by A5,A3,A4,
PREPOWER:6;
end;
Sum (((1/2) GeoSeq)^\(n+1)) = (1/2)|^n by Th23;
hence thesis by A1,A2,SERIES_1:20;
end;
theorem Th26:
for X being infinite Subset of NAT, i being Nat holds
(Partial_Sums (X-powers (1/2))).i < Sum (X-powers (1/2))
proof
set r = 1/2;
let X be infinite Subset of NAT;
let i be Nat;
defpred P[Nat] means (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).i <= (
Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).(i+$1);
not X c= i+1;
then consider a being object such that
A1: a in X and
A2: not a in i+1;
reconsider a, j = i as Element of NAT by A1,ORDINAL1:def 12;
A3: (X-powers r).a = r|^a by A1,Def5;
A4: now
let n be Nat;
n in X & (X-powers r).n = r|^n or not n in X & (X-powers r).n = 0 by Def5;
hence 0 <= (X-powers r).n by PREPOWER:6;
end;
A5: now
let k be Nat such that
A6: P[k];
i+(k+1) = i+k+1;
then
A7: (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).(j+(k+1)) = (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).(
j+k) + (X-powers r).(j+(k+1)) by SERIES_1:def 1;
(X-powers r).(j+(k+1)) >= 0 by A4;
then
(Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).(j+k) + 0 <= (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).
(j+(k+1)) by A7,XREAL_1:6;
hence P[k+1] by A6,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
Segm(j+1) c= Segm a by A2,ORDINAL1:16;
then j+1 <= a by NAT_1:39;
then consider k being Nat such that
A8: a = (j+1)+k by NAT_1:10;
reconsider k as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
r|^a > 0 by PREPOWER:6;
then
A9: (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).i + r|^a > (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).i +
0 by XREAL_1:6;
A10: P[ 0 ];
for k being Nat holds P[k] from NAT_1:sch 2(A10,A5);
then
A11: (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).i <= (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).(i+k);
j+(k+1) = j+k+1;
then
(Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).a = (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).(j+k) + r|^
a by A3,A8,SERIES_1:def 1;
then (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).i + r|^a <= (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).a
by A11,XREAL_1:6;
then
A12: (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).i < (Partial_Sums (X-powers r)).a by A9,
XXREAL_0:2;
(Partial_Sums (X-powers (1/2))).a <= Sum (X-powers (1/2)) by Th21,A4,
IRRAT_1:29;
hence thesis by A12,XXREAL_0:2;
end;
theorem Th27:
for X,Y being infinite Subset of NAT st Sum (X-powers (1/2)) =
Sum (Y-powers (1/2)) holds X = Y
proof
set r = 1/2;
let X,Y be infinite Subset of NAT such that
A1: Sum (X-powers (1/2)) = Sum (Y-powers (1/2)) and
A2: X <> Y;
defpred P[Nat] means not ($1 in X iff $1 in Y);
ex a being object st not (a in X iff a in Y) by A2,TARSKI:2;
then
A3: ex i being Nat st P[i];
consider i being Nat such that
A4: P[i] & for n being Nat st P[n] holds i <= n from NAT_1:sch 5(A3);
reconsider i as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
consider A,B being infinite Subset of NAT such that
A5: A = X & B = Y or A = Y & B = X and
A6: i in A and
A7: not i in B by A4;
A8: (A-powers r).i = r|^i by A6,Def5;
defpred P[Nat] means
$1 < i implies (Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).
$1 = (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).$1;
A9: now
let j be Nat;
assume
A10: P[j];
thus P[j+1]
proof
A11: j+1 in B & (B-powers r).(j+1) = r|^(j+1) or not j+1 in B & (B
-powers r ).(j+1) = 0 by Def5;
A12: j+1 in A & (A-powers r).(j+1) = r|^(j+1) or not j+1 in A & (A
-powers r ).(j+1) = 0 by Def5;
assume
A13: j+1 < i;
hence
(Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).(j+1) = (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).j +
(A-powers r).(j+1) by A10,NAT_1:13,SERIES_1:def 1
.= (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).(j+1) by A12,A11,A13,A4,A5,
SERIES_1:def 1;
end;
end;
(Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).0 = (A-powers r).0 by SERIES_1:def 1;
then
A14: 0 in A & (Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).0 = r|^0 or not 0 in A & (
Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).0 = 0 by Def5;
A15: (B-powers r).i = 0 by A7,Def5;
A16: (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).0 = (B-powers r).0 by SERIES_1:def 1;
then 0 in B & (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).0 = r|^0 or not 0 in B & (
Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).0 = 0 by Def5;
then
A17: P[ 0 ] by A14,A4,A5;
A18: for j being Nat holds P[j] from NAT_1:sch 2(A17,A9);
A19: (Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).i = (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).i + r|^i
proof
per cases by NAT_1:6;
suppose
i = 0;
hence thesis by A8,A15,A16,SERIES_1:def 1;
end;
suppose
ex j being Nat st i = j+1;
then consider j being Nat such that
A20: i = j+1;
reconsider j as Element of NAT by ORDINAL1:def 12;
j < i by A20,NAT_1:13;
then (Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).j = (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).j by A18
;
hence
(Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).i = (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).j+0 + r
|^i by A8,A20,SERIES_1:def 1
.= (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).i + r|^i by A15,A20,SERIES_1:def 1;
end;
end;
A21: (Partial_Sums (A-powers r)).i < Sum (A-powers r) by Th26;
A22: Sum ((B-powers r)^\(i+1)) <= r|^i by Th25;
Sum (B-powers r) = (Partial_Sums (B-powers r)).i + Sum ((B-powers r)^\(
i +1)) by Th21,SERIES_1:15;
hence thesis by A19,A1,A5,A21,A22,XREAL_1:6;
end;
theorem Th28:
X is countable implies Fin X is countable
proof
defpred P[object,object] means
ex p being FinSequence st $2 = p & $1 = rng p;
A1: X = {} & {{}} is countable or X <> {};
A2: for a being object st a in Fin X
ex b being object st b in X* & P[a,b]
proof let a be object;
reconsider aa=a as set by TARSKI:1;
assume
A3: a in Fin X;
then aa is finite by FINSUB_1:def 5;
then consider p being FinSequence such that
A4: a = rng p by FINSEQ_1:52;
aa c= X by A3,FINSUB_1:def 5;
then p is FinSequence of X by A4,FINSEQ_1:def 4;
then p in X* by FINSEQ_1:def 11;
hence thesis by A4;
end;
consider f being Function such that
A5: dom f = Fin X & rng f c= X* and
A6: for a being object st a in Fin X holds P[a,f.a] from FUNCT_1:sch 6(A2);
f is one-to-one
proof
let a,b be object;
assume that
A7: a in dom f and
A8: b in dom f;
A9: P[b,f.b] by A8,A5,A6;
P[a,f.a] by A7,A5,A6;
hence thesis by A9;
end;
then
A10: card Fin X c= card (X*) by A5,CARD_1:10;
assume X is countable;
then X* is countable by A1,CARD_4:13,FUNCT_7:17;
then card (X*) c= omega;
hence card Fin X c= omega by A10;
end;
theorem Th29:
continuum = exp(2, omega)
proof
not [0,0] in RAT+ by ARYTM_3:33;
then
A1: RAT = RAT+ \/ ([:{0},RAT+:] \ {[0,0]}) by NUMBERS:def 3,XBOOLE_1:87
,ZFMISC_1:50;
then bool RAT+ c= bool RAT by XBOOLE_1:7,ZFMISC_1:67;
then
A2: DEDEKIND_CUTS c= bool RAT;
RAT+ c= RAT by A1,XBOOLE_1:7;
then RAT+ \/ DEDEKIND_CUTS c= RAT \/ bool RAT by A2,XBOOLE_1:13;
then REAL+ c= RAT \/ bool RAT by ARYTM_2:def 2;
then
A3: card REAL+ c= card (RAT \/ bool RAT) by CARD_1:11;
set INFNAT = (bool NAT) \ Fin NAT;
A4: card RAT in card bool RAT by CARD_1:14;
card (RAT \/ bool RAT) c= card RAT +` card bool RAT by CARD_2:34;
then card REAL+ c= card RAT +` card bool RAT by A3;
then card REAL+ c= card bool RAT by A4,CARD_2:76;
then card REAL+ c= exp(2, omega) by Th17,CARD_2:31;
then card REAL+ +` card REAL+ c= exp(2, omega) +` exp(2, omega) by CARD_2:83;
then
A5: card REAL+ +` card REAL+ c= exp(2, omega) by CARD_2:76;
deffunc F(set) = In(Sum ($1-powers (1/2)),REAL);
A6: card [:{0},REAL+:] = card [:REAL+,{0}:] by CARD_2:4
.= card REAL+ by CARD_1:69;
A7: continuum c= card (REAL+ \/ [:{0},REAL+:]) by CARD_1:11,NUMBERS:def 1;
card (REAL+ \/ [:{0},REAL+:]) c= card REAL+ +` card [:{0},REAL+:] by
CARD_2:34;
then continuum c= card REAL+ +` card REAL+ by A7,A6;
hence continuum c= exp(2, omega) by A5;
Fin NAT is countable by Th28,CARD_4:2;
then
A8: card Fin NAT c= omega;
then card Fin NAT in card bool NAT by CARD_1:14,47,ORDINAL1:12;
then
A9: card bool NAT +` card Fin NAT = card bool NAT by CARD_2:76;
A10: omega in card bool NAT by CARD_1:14,47;
then reconsider INFNAT as non empty set by A8,CARD_1:68,ORDINAL1:12;
consider f being Function of INFNAT, REAL such that
A11: for X being Element of INFNAT holds f.X = F(X) from FUNCT_2:sch 4;
A12: f is one-to-one
proof
let a,b be object;
assume that
A13: a in dom f and
A14: b in dom f;
reconsider a,b as set by TARSKI:1;
A15: f.b = F(b) by A11,A14;
not b in Fin NAT by A14,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then
A16: b is infinite Subset of NAT by A14,FINSUB_1:def 5,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
not a in Fin NAT by A13,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then
A17: a is infinite Subset of NAT by A13,FINSUB_1:def 5,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
f.a = F(a) by A11,A13;
hence thesis by A17,A16,A15,Th27;
end;
A18: rng f c= REAL by RELAT_1:def 19;
dom f = INFNAT by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then card INFNAT c= continuum by A12,A18,CARD_1:10;
then card bool NAT c= continuum by A9,A8,A10,CARD_2:98,ORDINAL1:12;
hence thesis by CARD_1:47,CARD_2:31;
end;
::$N The Non-Denumerability of the Continuum
theorem Th30:
omega in continuum
proof
card omega in card bool omega by CARD_1:14;
hence thesis by Th29,CARD_2:31;
end;
theorem Th31:
for A being Subset-Family of REAL st card A in continuum holds
card {x where x is Element of REAL: ex U being set st U in UniCl A & x
is_local_minimum_of U} in continuum
proof
deffunc F(set) = {x where x is Element of REAL: x is_local_minimum_of $1};
let A be Subset-Family of REAL such that
A1: card A in continuum;
A2: now
per cases;
suppose
card A is empty;
then (card A)*`omega = 0 by CARD_2:20;
hence (card A)*`omega in continuum by ORDINAL3:8;
end;
suppose
A3: card A is non empty finite;
then
A4: card card A in omega by CARD_3:84;
0 in card A by A3,ORDINAL3:8;
hence (card A)*`omega in continuum by A4,Th30,CARD_4:16;
end;
suppose
A5: card A is infinite;
then omega c= card A by CARD_5:16;
hence (card A)*`omega in continuum by A1,A5,CARD_4:16;
end;
end;
set Y = {x where x is Element of REAL: ex U being set st U in A & x
is_local_minimum_of U};
set X = {x where x is Element of REAL: ex U being set st U in UniCl A & x
is_local_minimum_of U};
A6: for a being set st a in A holds F(a) in bool REAL
proof let a be set;
F(a) c= REAL
proof
let b be object;
assume b in F(a);
then ex x being Element of REAL st b = x
& x is_local_minimum_of a;
hence thesis;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
consider f being Function of A, bool REAL such that
A7: for a being set st a in A holds f.a = F(a) from FUNCT_2:sch 11(A6);
A8: X c= Y
proof
let a be object;
assume a in X;
then consider x being Element of REAL such that
A9: a = x and
A10: ex U being set st U in UniCl A & x is_local_minimum_of U;
consider U being set such that
A11: U in UniCl A and
A12: x is_local_minimum_of U by A10;
reconsider U as Subset of REAL by A11;
consider B being Subset-Family of REAL such that
A13: B c= A and
A14: U = union B by A11,CANTOR_1:def 1;
x in U by A12;
then consider C being set such that
A15: x in C and
A16: C in B by A14,TARSKI:def 4;
consider y being Real such that
A17: y < x and
A18: ].y,x.[ misses U by A12;
reconsider C as Subset of REAL by A16;
].y,x.[ misses C
proof
assume not thesis;
then consider b being object such that
A19: b in ].y,x.[ and
A20: b in C by XBOOLE_0:3;
b in U by A14,A16,A20,TARSKI:def 4;
hence thesis by A18,A19,XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
then x is_local_minimum_of C by A17,A15;
hence thesis by A13,A16,A9;
end;
Y c= Union f
proof
let a be object;
A21: dom f = A by FUNCT_2:def 1;
assume a in Y;
then consider x being Element of REAL such that
A22: a = x and
A23: ex U being set st U in A & x is_local_minimum_of U;
consider U being set such that
A24: U in A and
A25: x is_local_minimum_of U by A23;
A26: f.U = F(U) by A7,A24;
a in F(U) by A22,A25;
hence thesis by A26,A21,A24,CARD_5:2;
end;
then X c= Union f by A8;
then
A27: card X c= card Union f by CARD_1:11;
A28: for a being object holds a in A implies card (f.a) c= omega
proof let a be object;
assume
A29: a in A;
then reconsider b = a as Subset of REAL;
f.a = F(b) by A7,A29;
then f.a is countable by Th19;
hence thesis;
end;
dom f = A by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then card Union f c= (card A)*`omega by A28,CARD_2:86;
hence thesis by A27,A2,ORDINAL1:12,XBOOLE_1:1;
end;
theorem Th32:
for X being Subset-Family of REAL st card X in continuum ex x
being Real, q being Rational st x < q & not [.x,q.[ in UniCl X
proof
let X be Subset-Family of REAL such that
A1: card X in continuum;
set Z = {x where x is Element of REAL: ex U being set st U in UniCl X & x
is_local_minimum_of U};
set z = the Element of REAL \ Z;
card Z in continuum by A1,Th31;
then
A2: REAL \ Z <> {} by CARD_1:68;
then
A3: not z in Z by XBOOLE_0:def 5;
reconsider z as Element of REAL by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
z+0 < z+1 by XREAL_1:6;
then consider q being Rational such that
A4: z < q and
q < z+1 by RAT_1:7;
take z, q;
thus z < q by A4;
z is_local_minimum_of [.z,q.[
proof
thus z in [.z,q.[ by A4,XXREAL_1:3;
take y = z-1;
z-0 = z;
hence y < z by XREAL_1:15;
assume ].y,z.[ meets [.z,q.[;
then consider a being object such that
A5: a in ].y,z.[ and
A6: a in [.z,q.[ by XBOOLE_0:3;
reconsider a as Element of REAL by A5;
a < z by A5,XXREAL_1:4;
hence thesis by A6,XXREAL_1:3;
end;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
theorem
weight Sorgenfrey-line = continuum
proof
thus weight Sorgenfrey-line c= continuum by Lm5,Lm6,Th20,WAYBEL23:73;
consider B being Basis of Sorgenfrey-line such that
A1: weight Sorgenfrey-line = card B by WAYBEL23:74;
assume not continuum c= weight Sorgenfrey-line;
then
A2: weight Sorgenfrey-line in continuum by CARD_1:4;
the carrier of Sorgenfrey-line = REAL by Def2;
then consider x being Real, q being Rational such that
x < q and
A3: not [.x,q.[ in UniCl B by A2,A1,Th32;
[.x,q.[ is open Subset of Sorgenfrey-line by Th11;
then [.x,q.[ in the topology of Sorgenfrey-line by PRE_TOPC:def 2;
hence thesis by A3,YELLOW_9:22;
end;
begin :: Example: topological space with finite sets closed
definition
let X be set;
func ClFinTop(X) -> strict TopSpace means
: Def6:
the carrier of it = X &
for F being Subset of it holds F is closed iff F is finite or F = X;
existence
proof
defpred C[set] means $1 c= X & $1 is finite or $1 = X;
A1: X c= X;
A2: for A,B being set st C[A] & C[B] holds C[A \/ B]
proof
let A,B be set;
assume that
A3: C[A] and
A4: C[B];
reconsider A,B as Subset of X by A3,A4,A1;
A \/ B c= X;
hence thesis by A3,A4,XBOOLE_1:12;
end;
A5: for G being Subset-Family of X st for A being set st A in G holds C[A
] holds C[Intersect G]
proof
let G be Subset-Family of X;
assume
A6: for A being set st A in G holds C[A];
now
assume that
A7: G <> {} and
A8: G <> {X};
not G c= {X} by A7,A8,ZFMISC_1:33;
then consider a being object such that
A9: a in G and
A10: not a in {X};
reconsider aa=a as set by TARSKI:1;
A11: a <> X by A10,TARSKI:def 1;
C[aa] by A6,A9;
hence Intersect G is finite & Intersect G c= X by A11,A9,FINSET_1:1
,MSSUBFAM:2;
end;
hence thesis by A1,MSSUBFAM:9,SETFAM_1:def 9;
end;
A12: C[{}] & C[X] by XBOOLE_1:2;
consider T being strict TopSpace such that
A13: the carrier of T = X & for A being Subset of T holds A is closed
iff C[A] from TopDefByClosedPred(A12,A2,A5);
take T;
thus the carrier of T = X by A13;
let F be Subset of T;
thus thesis by A13;
end;
correctness
proof
let T1,T2 be strict TopSpace such that
A14: the carrier of T1 = X and
A15: for F being Subset of T1 holds F is closed iff F is finite or F = X and
A16: the carrier of T2 = X and
A17: for F being Subset of T2 holds F is closed iff F is finite or F = X;
now
let F be set;
F is closed Subset of T1 iff F c= X & (F is finite or F = X) by A14,A15;
hence F is closed Subset of T1 iff F is closed Subset of T2 by A16,A17;
end;
hence thesis by Th6;
end;
end;
theorem Th34:
for X being set, A being Subset of ClFinTop(X) holds A is open
iff A = {} or A` is finite
proof
let X be set, A be Subset of ClFinTop(X);
A1: the carrier of ClFinTop X = X by Def6;
hereby
assume that
A2: A is open and
A3: A <> {};
A`` = A;
then A` <> [#]the carrier of ClFinTop(X) by A3,XBOOLE_1:37;
hence A` is finite by A2,A1,Def6;
end;
assume A = {} or A` is finite;
then A` is closed by Def6;
hence thesis by TOPS_1:4;
end;
theorem Th35:
for X being infinite set, A being Subset of X st A is finite
holds A` is infinite
proof
let X be infinite set, A be Subset of X;
A \/ A` = [#]X by SUBSET_1:10
.= X;
hence thesis;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set;
cluster ClFinTop(X) -> non empty;
coherence by Def6;
end;
theorem
for X being infinite set for U,V being non empty open Subset of
ClFinTop(X) holds U meets V
proof
let X be infinite set;
let U,V be non empty open Subset of ClFinTop(X);
assume U misses V;
then
A1: U c= V` by SUBSET_1:23;
A2: the carrier of ClFinTop X = X by Def6;
V` is finite by Th34;
then U` is infinite by A1,A2,Th35;
then U` = [#]the carrier of ClFinTop X by A2,Def6;
then U`` = {}the carrier of ClFinTop X by XBOOLE_1:37;
hence thesis;
end;
begin :: Example: toplogical space with one point clusure
definition
let X,x0 be set;
func x0-PointClTop(X) -> strict TopSpace means
: Def7:
the carrier of it = X
& for A being Subset of it holds Cl A = IFEQ(A,{},A,A \/ {x0} /\ X);
existence
proof
deffunc ClOp(set) = IFEQ($1,{},$1,$1 \/ {x0} /\ X);
A1: for A being Subset of X holds A c= ClOp(A) & ClOp(A) c= X
proof
let A be Subset of X;
A = {} or A <> {};
then
A2: ClOp(A) = A or ClOp(A) = A \/ {x0} /\ X by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
hence A c= ClOp(A) by XBOOLE_1:7;
{x0} /\ X c= X by XBOOLE_1:17;
hence thesis by A2,XBOOLE_1:8;
end;
A3: ClOp({}) = {} by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
A4: for A,B being Subset of X holds ClOp(A \/ B) = ClOp(A) \/ ClOp(B)
proof
let A,B be Subset of X;
per cases;
suppose
A = {} or B = {};
hence thesis by A3;
end;
suppose
A5: A <> {} & B <> {};
then
A6: ClOp(A \/ B) = A \/ B \/ {x0} /\ X by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
A7: ClOp(B) = B \/ {x0} /\ X by A5,FUNCOP_1:def 8;
ClOp(A) = A \/ {x0} /\ X by A5,FUNCOP_1:def 8;
hence thesis by A7,A6,XBOOLE_1:5;
end;
end;
A8: for A being Subset of X holds ClOp(ClOp(A)) = ClOp(A)
proof
let A be Subset of X;
A = {} or A <> {};
then ClOp(A) = {} or A \/ {x0} /\ X <> {} & ClOp(A) = A \/ {x0} /\ X by
FUNCOP_1:def 8;
then
ClOp(ClOp(A)) = ClOp(A) or ClOp(A) = A \/ {x0} /\ X & ClOp(ClOp(A))
= A \/ {x0} /\ X \/ {x0} /\ X by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:6;
end;
consider T being strict TopSpace such that
A9: the carrier of T = X & for A being Subset of T holds Cl A = ClOp(
A) from TopDefByClosureOp(A3,A1,A4,A8);
take T;
thus the carrier of T = X by A9;
let F be Subset of T;
thus thesis by A9;
end;
correctness
proof
let T1,T2 be strict TopSpace such that
A10: the carrier of T1 = X and
A11: for A being Subset of T1 holds Cl A = IFEQ(A,{},A,A \/ {x0} /\ X) and
A12: the carrier of T2 = X and
A13: for A being Subset of T2 holds Cl A = IFEQ(A,{},A,A \/ {x0} /\ X);
now
let A1 be Subset of T1, A2 being Subset of T2;
assume A1 = A2;
hence Cl A1 = IFEQ(A2,{},A2,A2 \/ {x0} /\ X) by A11
.= Cl A2 by A13;
end;
hence thesis by A10,A12,Th8;
end;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set;
let x0 be set;
cluster x0-PointClTop X -> non empty;
coherence by Def7;
end;
theorem Th37:
for X being non empty set, x0 being Element of X for A being non
empty Subset of x0-PointClTop(X) holds Cl A = A \/ {x0}
proof
let X be non empty set;
let x0 be Element of X;
let A be non empty Subset of x0-PointClTop(X);
thus Cl A = IFEQ(A,{},A,A \/ {x0}/\X) by Def7
.= A \/ {x0}/\X by FUNCOP_1:def 8
.= A \/ {x0} by XBOOLE_1:28;
end;
theorem Th38:
for X being non empty set, x0 being Element of X for A being non
empty Subset of x0-PointClTop(X) holds A is closed iff x0 in A
proof
let X be non empty set;
let x0 be Element of X;
let A be non empty Subset of x0-PointClTop(X);
A is closed iff Cl A = A by PRE_TOPC:22;
then A is closed iff A = A \/ {x0} by Th37;
then A is closed iff {x0} c= A by XBOOLE_1:7,12;
hence thesis by ZFMISC_1:31;
end;
theorem Th39:
for X being non empty set, x0 being Element of X for A being
proper Subset of x0-PointClTop(X) holds A is open iff not x0 in A
proof
let X be non empty set;
let x0 be Element of X;
let A be proper Subset of x0-PointClTop(X);
A is open iff A` is closed by TOPS_1:4;
then
A1: A is open iff x0 in A` by Th38;
x0 is Element of x0-PointClTop X by Def7;
hence thesis by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
end;
theorem
for X,x0,x being set st x0 in X holds {x} is closed Subset of x0
-PointClTop(X) iff x = x0
proof
let X,x0,x be set;
assume
A1: x0 in X;
hereby
assume {x} is closed Subset of x0-PointClTop(X);
then x0 in {x} by A1,Th38;
hence x = x0 by TARSKI:def 1;
end;
assume
A2: x = x0;
then
A3: x0 in {x} by ZFMISC_1:31;
{x} c= X by A2,A1,ZFMISC_1:31;
hence thesis by A3,Def7,Th38;
end;
theorem
for X,x0,x being set st {x0} c< X holds {x} is open Subset of x0
-PointClTop(X) iff x in X & x <> x0
proof
let X,x0,x be set;
assume
A1: {x0} c< X;
then reconsider Y = X as non empty set;
reconsider A = {x0} as Subset of Y by A1;
A2: x0 in A by TARSKI:def 1;
reconsider A as proper Subset of Y by A1,SUBSET_1:def 6;
A3: the carrier of x0-PointClTop(X) = X by Def7;
hereby
assume
A4: {x} is open Subset of x0-PointClTop(X);
hence x in X by A3,ZFMISC_1:31;
assume x = x0;
then not x0 in {x0} or A is non proper Subset of x0-PointClTop(X) by A4
,Th39;
hence contradiction by A3,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
assume that
A5: x in X and
A6: x <> x0;
A7: not x0 in {x} by A6,TARSKI:def 1;
x0 in Y by A2;
then {x} is proper Subset of x0-PointClTop(Y) by A7,A5,A3,SUBSET_1:def 6
,ZFMISC_1:31;
hence thesis by A7,A2,Th39;
end;
begin :: Example: topological space discrete on subset
definition
let X,X0 be set;
func X0-DiscreteTop(X) -> strict TopSpace means
: Def8:
the carrier of it =
X & for A being Subset of it holds Int A = IFEQ(A,X,A,A /\ X0);
existence
proof
deffunc ClOp(set) = IFEQ($1,X,$1,$1 /\ X0);
A1: for A being Subset of X holds ClOp(A) c= A
proof
let A be Subset of X;
A = X or A <> X;
then ClOp(A) = A or ClOp(A) = A /\ X0 by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:17;
end;
A2: for A,B being Subset of X holds ClOp(A /\ B) = ClOp(A) /\ ClOp(B)
proof
let A,B be Subset of X;
per cases;
suppose
A3: A = X or B = X;
A4: B /\ X = B by XBOOLE_1:28;
B = X or B <> X;
then ClOp(B) = B or ClOp(B) = B /\ X0 by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
then
A5: X /\ ClOp(B) = ClOp(B) by XBOOLE_1:28;
A = X or A <> X;
then ClOp(A) = A or ClOp(A) = A /\ X0 by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
then
A6: ClOp(A) /\ X = ClOp(A) by XBOOLE_1:28;
A /\ X = A by XBOOLE_1:28;
hence thesis by A4,A6,A5,A3,FUNCOP_1:def 8;
end;
suppose
A7: A <> X & B <> X;
A\/ A/\ B = A by XBOOLE_1:22;
then A /\ B <> X by A7,XBOOLE_1:12;
then
A8: ClOp(A /\ B) = (A /\ B) /\ X0 by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
X0 = X0 /\ X0;
then ClOp(A /\ B) = (A /\ B) /\ X0 /\ X0 by A8,XBOOLE_1:16;
then
A9: ClOp(A /\ B) = (B /\ X0) /\ A /\ X0 by XBOOLE_1:16;
A10: ClOp(B) = B /\ X0 by A7,FUNCOP_1:def 8;
ClOp(A) = A /\ X0 by A7,FUNCOP_1:def 8;
hence thesis by A9,A10,XBOOLE_1:16;
end;
end;
A11: for A being Subset of X holds ClOp(ClOp(A)) = ClOp(A)
proof
let A be Subset of X;
A = X or A <> X;
then ClOp(A) = X or A /\ X0 <> X & ClOp(A) = A /\ X0 by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
then
ClOp(ClOp(A)) = ClOp(A) or ClOp(A) = A /\ X0 & ClOp(ClOp(A)) = A /\
X0 /\ X0 & X0 /\ X0 = X0 by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:16;
end;
A12: ClOp(X) = X by FUNCOP_1:def 8;
consider T being strict TopSpace such that
A13: the carrier of T = X & for A being Subset of T holds Int A = ClOp
(A) from TopDefByInteriorOp(A12,A1,A2,A11);
take T;
thus the carrier of T = X by A13;
let F be Subset of T;
thus thesis by A13;
end;
correctness
proof
let T1,T2 be strict TopSpace such that
A14: the carrier of T1 = X and
A15: for A being Subset of T1 holds Int A = IFEQ(A,X,A,A /\ X0) and
A16: the carrier of T2 = X and
A17: for A being Subset of T2 holds Int A = IFEQ(A,X,A,A /\ X0);
now
let A1 be Subset of T1, A2 being Subset of T2;
assume A1 = A2;
hence Int A1 = IFEQ(A2,X,A2,A2 /\ X0) by A15
.= Int A2 by A17;
end;
hence thesis by A14,A16,Th10;
end;
end;
registration
let X be non empty set;
let X0 be set;
cluster X0-DiscreteTop X -> non empty;
coherence by Def8;
end;
theorem Th42:
for X being non empty set, X0 being set for A being proper
Subset of X0-DiscreteTop(X) holds Int A = A /\ X0
proof
let X be non empty set, X0 be set;
let A be proper Subset of X0-DiscreteTop(X);
the carrier of X0-DiscreteTop X = X by Def8;
then
A1: X <> A by SUBSET_1:def 6;
thus Int A = IFEQ(A,X,A,A /\ X0) by Def8
.= A /\ X0 by A1,FUNCOP_1:def 8;
end;
theorem Th43:
for X being non empty set, X0 being set for A being proper
Subset of X0-DiscreteTop(X) holds A is open iff A c= X0
proof
let X be non empty set, X0 be set;
let A be proper Subset of X0-DiscreteTop(X);
A is open iff Int A = A by TOPS_1:23;
then A is open iff A = A /\ X0 by Th42;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_1:17,28;
end;
theorem Th44:
for X be set, X0 being Subset of X holds the topology of X0
-DiscreteTop X = {X} \/ bool X0
proof
let X be set;
let X0 be Subset of X;
A1: the carrier of X0-DiscreteTop X = X by Def8;
thus the topology of X0-DiscreteTop X c= {X} \/ bool X0
proof
let a be object;
assume
A2: a in the topology of X0-DiscreteTop X;
then reconsider a as Subset of X0-DiscreteTop X;
A3: a is proper & X is non empty or a is not proper by A1;
a is open by A2;
then a = X or a c= X0 by A3,A1,Th43;
then a in {X} or a in bool X0 by TARSKI:def 1;
hence thesis by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
let a be object;
reconsider aa=a as set by TARSKI:1;
assume a in {X} \/ bool X0;
then
A4: a in {X} or a in bool X0 by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then a = X or aa c= X0 by TARSKI:def 1;
then reconsider a as Subset of X0-DiscreteTop X by A1,XBOOLE_1:1;
assume
A5: not thesis;
then
A6: a <> [#](X0-DiscreteTop X) by PRE_TOPC:def 2;
then
A7: X is non empty by A1;
A8: a is proper by A6;
A9: a is not open by A5;
a <> X by A6,Def8;
hence thesis by A7,A4,A9,A8,Th43,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
theorem
for X being set holds ADTS X = {}-DiscreteTop(X)
proof
let X be set;
set T = {}-DiscreteTop(X);
A1: the carrier of T = X by Def8;
A2: cobool X = {{},X} by TEX_1:def 2;
A3: the topology of T c= cobool X
proof
let a be object;
assume
A4: a in the topology of T;
then reconsider a as Subset of T;
a is open by A4;
then a c= X & X is empty or a is non proper or a c= {} by A1,Th43;
then a = {} or a = X by A1;
hence thesis by A2,TARSKI:def 2;
end;
{}T = {};
then
A5: {} in the topology of T by PRE_TOPC:def 2;
[#]T = X by Def8;
then X in the topology of T by PRE_TOPC:def 2;
then cobool X c= the topology of T by A5,A2,ZFMISC_1:32;
then the topology of T = cobool X by A3;
hence thesis by A1,TEX_1:def 3;
end;
theorem
for X being set holds 1TopSp X = X-DiscreteTop(X)
proof
let X be set;
set T = X-DiscreteTop(X);
A1: the carrier of T = X by Def8;
X c= X;
then the topology of T = {X} \/ bool X by Th44;
hence thesis by A1,ZFMISC_1:40;
end;