:: On same equivalents of well-foundedness
:: by Piotr Rudnicki and Andrzej Trybulec
::
:: Received February 25, 1997
:: Copyright (c) 1997-2017 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies FUNCT_1, PARTFUN1, TARSKI, RELAT_1, SUBSET_1, CARD_1, XBOOLE_0,
CARD_5, ORDINAL2, ORDERS_2, WELLORD1, STRUCT_0, WAYBEL_0, XXREAL_0,
ZFMISC_1, SETFAM_1, ORDINAL1, CARD_2, FINSET_1, FUNCOP_1, FUNCT_4, NAT_1,
ARYTM_3, NUMBERS, WELLFND1;
notations TARSKI, XBOOLE_0, ZFMISC_1, SUBSET_1, CARD_1, ORDINAL1, NUMBERS,
RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, BINOP_1, SETFAM_1, DOMAIN_1, XCMPLX_0, NAT_1, STRUCT_0,
RELSET_1, PARTFUN1, FUNCT_2, FUNCT_4, FUNCOP_1, WELLORD1, ORDINAL2,
FINSET_1, CARD_2, ORDERS_2, CARD_5, RFUNCT_3, WAYBEL_0;
constructors SETFAM_1, WELLORD1, BINOP_1, FUNCT_4, ORDINAL2, CARD_2, REALSET1,
CARD_5, RFUNCT_3, WAYBEL_0, RELSET_1;
registrations XBOOLE_0, SUBSET_1, ORDINAL1, RELSET_1, PARTFUN1, FUNCOP_1,
CARD_1, CARD_5, STRUCT_0, WAYBEL_0, FUNCT_1, ZFMISC_1, XCMPLX_0, NAT_1;
requirements NUMERALS, SUBSET, BOOLE;
definitions TARSKI, RELAT_1, FUNCT_1, WELLORD1, WAYBEL_0, XBOOLE_0;
equalities BINOP_1, FUNCOP_1;
expansions TARSKI, FUNCT_1, WELLORD1, WAYBEL_0, XBOOLE_0;
theorems TARSKI, ENUMSET1, ZFMISC_1, RELAT_1, RELSET_1, FUNCT_1, ORDINAL1,
WELLORD1, GRFUNC_1, PARTFUN1, FUNCT_2, ORDINAL2, FUNCOP_1, CARD_1,
ORDERS_2, FUNCT_4, CARD_5, XBOOLE_0, XBOOLE_1, BINOP_1, CARD_2, XTUPLE_0;
schemes NAT_1, SUBSET_1, DOMAIN_1, FUNCT_7, BINOP_1;
begin :: Preliminaries
:: General preliminaries
theorem Th1:
for X being functional set st for f, g being Function st f in X &
g in X holds f tolerates g holds union X is Function
proof
let X be functional set;
assume
A1: for f, g being Function st f in X & g in X holds f tolerates g;
A2: union X is Function-like
proof
let x,y1,y2 be object;
assume that
A3: [x,y1] in union X and
A4: [x,y2] in union X and
A5: y1<>y2;
consider gx being set such that
A6: [x, y2] in gx and
A7: gx in X by A4,TARSKI:def 4;
consider fx being set such that
A8: [x, y1] in fx and
A9: fx in X by A3,TARSKI:def 4;
reconsider fx, gx as Function by A9,A7;
fx tolerates gx by A1,A9,A7;
then ex h being Function st fx c= h & gx c= h by PARTFUN1:52;
hence contradiction by A5,A8,A6,FUNCT_1:def 1;
end;
union X is Relation-like
proof
let x be object;
assume x in union X;
then ex ux being set st x in ux & ux in X by TARSKI:def 4;
hence thesis by RELAT_1:def 1;
end;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
scheme
PFSeparation {X, Y() -> set, P[set]}: ex PFS being Subset of PFuncs(X(), Y()
) st for pfs being PartFunc of X(), Y() holds pfs in PFS iff P[pfs] proof
consider fs being Subset of PFuncs (X(), Y()) such that
A1: for f being set holds f in fs iff f in PFuncs(X(), Y()) & P[f] from
SUBSET_1:sch 1;
take fs;
let pfs be PartFunc of X(), Y();
pfs in PFuncs(X(), Y()) by PARTFUN1:45;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
:: Cardinals
registration
let X be set;
cluster nextcard X -> non empty;
coherence by CARD_1:def 3;
end;
registration
cluster regular for Aleph;
existence by CARD_5:30;
end;
theorem Th2:
for M being regular Aleph, X being set st X c= M & card X in M
holds sup X in M
proof
let M be regular Aleph;
cf M = M by CARD_5:def 3;
hence thesis by CARD_5:26;
end;
:: Relational structures
theorem Th3:
for R being RelStr, x being set holds (the InternalRel of R)-Seg
x c= the carrier of R
proof
let R be RelStr, x be set;
set r = the InternalRel of R, c = the carrier of R;
r-Seg x c= field r & field r c= c \/ c by RELSET_1:8,WELLORD1:9;
hence thesis;
end;
definition
let R be RelStr, X be Subset of R;
redefine attr X is lower means
:Def1:
for x, y being object st x in X & [y, x] in the InternalRel of R
holds y in X;
compatibility
proof
hereby
assume
A1: X is lower;
let x, y be object such that
A2: x in X and
A3: [y, x] in the InternalRel of R;
reconsider x9 = x, y9 = y as Element of R by A3,ZFMISC_1:87;
y9 <= x9 by A3,ORDERS_2:def 5;
hence y in X by A1,A2;
end;
assume
A4: for x, y being object st x in X & [y, x] in the InternalRel of R
holds y in X;
let x,y be Element of R such that
A5: x in X;
assume y <= x;
then [y,x] in the InternalRel of R by ORDERS_2:def 5;
hence thesis by A4,A5;
end;
end;
theorem Th4:
for R being RelStr, X being Subset of R, x being set st X is
lower & x in X holds (the InternalRel of R)-Seg x c= X
proof
let R be RelStr, X be Subset of R, x be set such that
A1: X is lower & x in X;
let z be object;
assume z in (the InternalRel of R)-Seg x;
then [z,x] in (the InternalRel of R) by WELLORD1:1;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
theorem Th5:
for R being RelStr, X being lower Subset of R, Y being Subset of
R, x being set st Y = X \/ {x} & (the InternalRel of R)-Seg x c= X holds Y is
lower
proof
let R be RelStr, X be lower Subset of R, Y be Subset of R, x be set;
set r = the InternalRel of R;
assume that
A1: Y = X \/ {x} and
A2: r-Seg x c= X;
let z, y be object;
assume that
A3: z in Y and
A4: [y, z] in r;
per cases by A1,A3,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
z in X;
then y in X by A4,Def1;
hence thesis by A1,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
suppose
z in {x} & y = z;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
suppose
A5: z in {x} & y <> z;
then z = x by TARSKI:def 1;
then y in r-Seg x by A4,A5,WELLORD1:1;
hence thesis by A1,A2,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
end;
end;
begin :: Well-founded relational structures
definition
let R be RelStr;
attr R is well_founded means
the InternalRel of R is_well_founded_in the carrier of R;
end;
registration
cluster non empty well_founded for RelStr;
existence
proof
reconsider er = {} as Relation of {{}} by RELSET_1:12;
take R = RelStr(#{{}}, er#);
thus R is non empty;
let Y be set;
assume
A1: Y c= the carrier of R & Y <> {};
take e = {};
Y = {{}} by A1,ZFMISC_1:33;
hence e in Y by TARSKI:def 1;
assume (the InternalRel of R)-Seg e /\ Y <> {};
then consider x being object such that
A2: x in (the InternalRel of R)-Seg e /\ Y by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
x in (the InternalRel of R)-Seg e by A2,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence contradiction by WELLORD1:1;
end;
end;
definition
let R be RelStr, X be Subset of R;
attr X is well_founded means
:Def3:
the InternalRel of R is_well_founded_in X;
end;
registration
let R be RelStr;
cluster well_founded for Subset of R;
existence
proof
reconsider e = {} as Subset of R by XBOOLE_1:2;
take e;
let Y be set;
assume Y c= e & Y <> {};
hence thesis;
end;
end;
definition
let R be RelStr;
func well_founded-Part R -> Subset of R means
:Def4:
it = union {S where S is Subset of R : S is well_founded lower};
existence
proof
set IT = {S where S is Subset of R : S is well_founded lower};
IT c= bool the carrier of R
proof
let x be object;
assume x in IT;
then ex S being Subset of R st x = S & S is well_founded lower;
hence thesis;
end;
then reconsider IT as Subset-Family of R;
union IT is Subset of R;
hence thesis;
end;
uniqueness;
end;
registration
let R be RelStr;
cluster well_founded-Part R -> lower well_founded;
coherence
proof
set wfp = well_founded-Part R, r = the InternalRel of R, IT = {S where S
is Subset of R : S is well_founded lower};
A1: wfp = union IT by Def4;
hereby
let x, y be object;
assume that
A2: x in wfp and
A3: [y, x] in r;
consider Y being set such that
A4: x in Y and
A5: Y in IT by A1,A2,TARSKI:def 4;
consider S being Subset of R such that
A6: Y = S and
A7: S is well_founded lower by A5;
y in S by A3,A4,A6,A7;
hence y in wfp by A1,A5,A6,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
let Y be set;
assume that
A8: Y c= wfp and
A9: Y <> {};
consider y being object such that
A10: y in Y by A9,XBOOLE_0:def 1;
consider YY being set such that
A11: y in YY and
A12: YY in IT by A1,A8,A10,TARSKI:def 4;
consider S being Subset of R such that
A13: YY = S and
A14: S is well_founded lower by A12;
set YS = Y /\ S;
A15: r is_well_founded_in S by A14;
YS c= S & YS <> {} by A10,A11,A13,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider a being object such that
A16: a in YS and
A17: r-Seg a misses YS by A15;
A18: a in Y by A16,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
a in S by A16,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A19: r-Seg a /\ Y = r-Seg a /\ S /\ Y by A14,Th4,XBOOLE_1:28
.= r-Seg a /\ YS by XBOOLE_1:16;
r-Seg a /\ YS = {} by A17;
then r-Seg a misses Y by A19;
hence thesis by A18;
end;
end;
theorem Th6:
for R being non empty RelStr, x be Element of R holds {x} is
well_founded Subset of R
proof
let R be non empty RelStr, x be Element of R;
set r = the InternalRel of R;
reconsider sx = {x} as Subset of R;
sx is well_founded
proof
let Y be set;
assume that
A1: Y c= sx and
A2: Y <> {};
take x;
Y = sx by A1,A2,ZFMISC_1:33;
hence x in Y by TARSKI:def 1;
assume not thesis;
then consider a being object such that
A3: a in r-Seg x /\ Y by XBOOLE_0:4;
a in r-Seg x by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A4: a <> x by WELLORD1:1;
a in Y by A3,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence contradiction by A1,A4,TARSKI:def 1;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th7:
for R being RelStr, X, Y being well_founded Subset of R st X is
lower holds X \/ Y is well_founded Subset of R
proof
let R be RelStr, X, Y be well_founded Subset of R;
set r = the InternalRel of R;
assume
A1: X is lower;
reconsider XY = X \/ Y as Subset of R;
A2: r is_well_founded_in Y by Def3;
A3: r is_well_founded_in X by Def3;
XY is well_founded
proof
let Z be set such that
A4: Z c= XY and
A5: Z <> {};
set XZ = X /\ Z;
A6: XZ c= X by XBOOLE_1:17;
per cases;
suppose
XZ = {};
then X misses Z;
then Z c= Y by A4,XBOOLE_1:73;
hence thesis by A2,A5;
end;
suppose
XZ <> {};
then consider a being object such that
A7: a in XZ and
A8: r-Seg a misses XZ by A3,A6;
A9: a in X by A7,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
take a;
thus a in Z by A7,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
assume r-Seg a /\ Z <> {};
then consider b being object such that
A10: b in r-Seg a /\ Z by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
A11: b in Z by A10,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
A12: b in r-Seg a by A10,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then [b,a] in r by WELLORD1:1;
then b in X by A1,A9;
then b in XZ by A11,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence contradiction by A8,A12,XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
end;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th8:
for R being RelStr holds R is well_founded iff well_founded-Part
R = the carrier of R
proof
let R be RelStr;
set r = the InternalRel of R, c = the carrier of R, wfp = well_founded-Part
R;
set IT = {S where S is Subset of R : S is well_founded lower};
c c= c;
then reconsider cs = c as Subset of R;
A1: wfp = union IT by Def4;
hereby
A2: cs is lower;
assume R is well_founded;
then r is_well_founded_in cs;
then cs is well_founded;
then cs in IT by A2;
then cs c= wfp by A1,ZFMISC_1:74;
hence wfp = c;
end;
assume
A3: wfp = c;
let Y be set;
assume that
A4: Y c= c and
A5: Y <> {};
consider y being object such that
A6: y in Y by A5,XBOOLE_0:def 1;
consider YY being set such that
A7: y in YY and
A8: YY in IT by A1,A3,A4,A6,TARSKI:def 4;
consider S being Subset of R such that
A9: YY = S and
A10: S is well_founded lower by A8;
set YS = Y /\ S;
A11: r is_well_founded_in S by A10;
YS c= S & YS <> {} by A6,A7,A9,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then consider a being object such that
A12: a in YS and
A13: r-Seg a misses YS by A11;
A14: a in Y by A12,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
a in S by A12,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then
A15: r-Seg a /\ Y = r-Seg a /\ S /\ Y by A10,Th4,XBOOLE_1:28
.= r-Seg a /\ YS by XBOOLE_1:16;
r-Seg a /\ YS = {} by A13;
then r-Seg a misses Y by A15;
hence thesis by A14;
end;
theorem Th9:
for R being non empty RelStr, x being Element of R st (the
InternalRel of R)-Seg x c= well_founded-Part R holds x in well_founded-Part R
proof
let R be non empty RelStr, x be Element of R;
set wfp = well_founded-Part R, IT = {S where S is Subset of R : S is
well_founded lower}, xwfp = wfp \/ {x};
A1: wfp = union IT by Def4;
x in {x} by TARSKI:def 1;
then
A2: x in xwfp by XBOOLE_0:def 3;
reconsider xwfp as Subset of R;
{x} is well_founded Subset of R by Th6;
then
A3: xwfp is well_founded by Th7;
assume (the InternalRel of R)-Seg x c= wfp;
then xwfp is lower by Th5;
then xwfp in IT by A3;
hence thesis by A1,A2,TARSKI:def 4;
end;
:: Well-founded induction
scheme
WFMin {R() -> non empty RelStr, x() -> Element of R(), P[set]}: ex x being
Element of R() st P[x] & not ex y being Element of R() st x <> y & P[y] & [y,x]
in the InternalRel of R()
provided
A1: P[x()] and
A2: R() is well_founded
proof
set c = the carrier of R(), r = the InternalRel of R(), Z = {x where x is
Element of c: P[x]};
A3: x() in Z by A1;
Z is Subset of c from DOMAIN_1:sch 7;
then reconsider Z as non empty Subset of c by A3;
r is_well_founded_in c by A2;
then consider a being object such that
A4: a in Z and
A5: r-Seg a misses Z;
reconsider a as Element of R() by A4;
take a;
ex a9 being Element of c st a9 = a & P[a9] by A4;
hence P[a];
given y being Element of R() such that
A6: a <> y & P[y] & [y,a] in r;
y in Z & y in r-Seg a by A6,WELLORD1:1;
hence contradiction by A5,XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
:: WF iff WFInduction
theorem Th10:
for R being non empty RelStr holds R is well_founded iff for S
being set st for x being Element of R st (the InternalRel of R)-Seg x c= S
holds x in S holds the carrier of R c= S
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
set c = the carrier of R, r = the InternalRel of R;
hereby
assume
A1: R is well_founded;
let S be set such that
A2: for x being Element of c st r-Seg x c= S holds x in S;
defpred P[set] means $1 in c & not $1 in S;
assume not c c= S;
then consider x being object such that
A3: x in c and
A4: not x in S;
reconsider x as Element of R by A3;
A5: P[x] by A4;
consider x0 being Element of R such that
A6: P[x0] and
A7: not ex y being Element of R st x0 <> y & P[y] & [y,x0] in r from
WFMin(A5, A1);
now
assume not r-Seg x0 c= S;
then consider z being object such that
A8: z in r-Seg x0 and
A9: not z in S;
A10: x0 <> z by A8,WELLORD1:1;
A11: [z, x0] in r by A8,WELLORD1:1;
then reconsider z as Element of R by ZFMISC_1:87;
z = z;
hence contradiction by A7,A9,A10,A11;
end;
hence contradiction by A2,A6;
end;
assume
A12: for S being set st for x being Element of c st r-Seg x c= S holds x
in S holds c c= S;
assume not R is well_founded;
then not r is_well_founded_in c;
then consider Y being set such that
A13: Y c= c & Y <> {} and
A14: not ex a being object st a in Y & r-Seg a misses Y;
now
let x be Element of c such that
A15: r-Seg x c= c\Y;
assume not x in c\Y;
then x in Y by XBOOLE_0:def 5;
then r-Seg x meets Y by A14;
then ex z being object st z in r-Seg x & z in Y by XBOOLE_0:3;
hence contradiction by A15,XBOOLE_0:def 5;
end;
then c c= c\Y by A12;
hence contradiction by A13,XBOOLE_1:1,38;
end;
scheme
WFInduction {R() -> non empty RelStr, P[set]}: for x being Element of R()
holds P[x]
provided
A1: for x being Element of R() st for y being Element of R() st y <> x &
[y,x] in the InternalRel of R() holds P[y] holds P[x] and
A2: R() is well_founded
proof
set c = the carrier of R(), r = the InternalRel of R(), Z = {x where x is
Element of c: P[x]};
now
let x be Element of c such that
A3: r-Seg x c= Z;
reconsider x9 = x as Element of R();
now
let y9 be Element of R();
assume y9 <> x9 & [y9,x9] in r;
then y9 in r-Seg x9 by WELLORD1:1;
then y9 in Z by A3;
then ex y being Element of c st y = y9 & P[y];
hence P[y9];
end;
then P[x9] by A1;
hence x in Z;
end;
then
A4: c c= Z by A2,Th10;
let x be Element of R();
x in Z by A4;
then ex x9 being Element of c st x = x9 & P[x9];
hence thesis;
end;
:: Well-foundedness and recursive definitions
definition
let R be non empty RelStr, V be non empty set, H be Function of [:the
carrier of R, PFuncs(the carrier of R, V):], V, F be Function;
pred F is_recursively_expressed_by H means
for x being Element of R holds F.x = H.(x, F|(the InternalRel of R)-Seg x);
end;
:: Well foundedness and existence
theorem
for R being non empty RelStr holds R is well_founded iff for V being
non empty set, H being Function of [:the carrier of R, PFuncs(the carrier of R,
V):], V ex F being Function of the carrier of R, V st F
is_recursively_expressed_by H
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
set c = the carrier of R, r = the InternalRel of R;
defpred PDR[ ] means for V being non empty set, H being Function of [:c,
PFuncs(c, V):], V ex F being Function of c, V st F is_recursively_expressed_by
H;
reconsider ac = omega +` card c as infinite Cardinal;
set V = nextcard ac;
deffunc F(Element of c, Element of PFuncs(c, V)) = sup rng $2;
A1: for x being Element of c, p being Element of PFuncs(c, V) holds F(x,p) in V
proof
let x be Element of c, p be Element of PFuncs(c, V);
card dom p c= card c & card rng p c= card dom p by CARD_1:11,12;
then
A2: card rng p c= card c;
card c c= ac by CARD_2:94;
then card rng p c= ac by A2;
then
A3: card rng p in V by CARD_1:18,ORDINAL1:12;
V is regular by CARD_5:30;
hence thesis by A3,Th2;
end;
consider H being Function of [:c, PFuncs(c, V):], V such that
A4: for x being Element of c, p being Element of PFuncs(c, V) holds H.
(x,p) = F(x,p) from FUNCT_7:sch 1(A1);
thus R is well_founded implies PDR[ ]
proof
assume
A5: R is well_founded;
let V be non empty set, H be Function of [:c, PFuncs(c, V):], V;
defpred P[PartFunc of c, V] means dom $1 is lower & for x being set st x
in dom $1 holds $1.x = H.[x, $1 | r-Seg x];
consider fs being Subset of PFuncs(c, V) such that
A6: for f being PartFunc of c, V holds f in fs iff P[f] from
PFSeparation;
now
let f, g be Function;
assume that
A7: f in fs and
A8: g in fs;
reconsider ff = f, gg = g as PartFunc of c,V by A7,A8,PARTFUN1:46;
defpred P[set] means $1 in dom ff & $1 in dom gg & ff.$1 <> gg.$1;
assume not f tolerates g;
then consider x being object such that
A9: x in dom ff /\ dom gg and
A10: ff.x <> gg.x by PARTFUN1:def 4;
reconsider x as Element of R by A9;
A11: P[x] by A9,A10,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
consider x0 being Element of R such that
A12: P[x0] and
A13: not ex y being Element of R st x0 <> y & P[y] & [y,x0] in the
InternalRel of R from WFMin(A11, A5 );
ff | r-Seg x0 = gg | r-Seg x0
proof
set fr = ff | r-Seg x0, gr = gg | r-Seg x0;
assume
A14: not thesis;
A15: dom ff is lower by A6,A7;
then
A16: dom fr = r-Seg x0 by A12,Th4,RELAT_1:62;
A17: dom gg is lower by A6,A8;
then dom fr = dom gr by A12,A16,Th4,RELAT_1:62;
then consider x1 being object such that
A18: x1 in dom fr and
A19: fr.x1 <> gr.x1 by A14;
A20: [x1, x0] in r by A16,A18,WELLORD1:1;
reconsider x1 as Element of R by A18;
A21: fr.x1 = ff.x1 & gr.x1 = gg.x1 by A16,A18,FUNCT_1:49;
A22: x1 <> x0 by A16,A18,WELLORD1:1;
A23: x1 in dom gg by A12,A17,A20;
x1 in dom ff by A12,A15,A20;
hence contradiction by A13,A19,A20,A21,A22,A23;
end;
then ff.x0 = H.[x0, gg | r-Seg x0] by A6,A7,A12
.= gg.x0 by A6,A8,A12;
hence contradiction by A12;
end;
then reconsider ufs=union fs as Function by Th1;
A24: now
let x be set;
assume x in dom ufs;
then [x, ufs.x] in ufs by FUNCT_1:1;
then consider fx being set such that
A25: [x, ufs.x] in fx and
A26: fx in fs by TARSKI:def 4;
reconsider ff = fx as PartFunc of c, V by A26,PARTFUN1:46;
A27: x in dom ff by A25,FUNCT_1:1;
A28: dom ff is lower & ff c= ufs by A6,A26,ZFMISC_1:74;
thus ufs.x = ff.x by A25,FUNCT_1:1
.= H.[x, ff | r-Seg x] by A6,A26,A27
.= H.[x, ufs | r-Seg x] by A27,A28,Th4,GRFUNC_1:27;
end;
A29: dom ufs c= c
proof
let y be object;
assume y in dom ufs;
then [y, ufs.y] in ufs by FUNCT_1:1;
then consider fx being set such that
A30: [y, ufs.y] in fx and
A31: fx in fs by TARSKI:def 4;
consider ff being Function such that
A32: ff = fx and
A33: dom ff c= c and
rng ff c= V by A31,PARTFUN1:def 3;
y in dom ff by A30,A32,XTUPLE_0:def 12;
hence thesis by A33;
end;
A34: rng ufs c= V
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng ufs;
then consider x being object such that
A35: x in dom ufs & y = ufs.x by FUNCT_1:def 3;
[x, y] in ufs by A35,FUNCT_1:1;
then consider fx being set such that
A36: [x, y] in fx and
A37: fx in fs by TARSKI:def 4;
consider ff being Function such that
A38: ff = fx and
dom ff c= c and
A39: rng ff c= V by A37,PARTFUN1:def 3;
y in rng ff by A36,A38,XTUPLE_0:def 13;
hence thesis by A39;
end;
A40: now
let x, y be object;
assume that
A41: x in dom ufs and
A42: [y, x] in r;
[x, ufs.x] in ufs by A41,FUNCT_1:1;
then consider fx being set such that
A43: [x, ufs.x] in fx and
A44: fx in fs by TARSKI:def 4;
reconsider ff = fx as PartFunc of c, V by A44,PARTFUN1:46;
ff c= ufs by A44,ZFMISC_1:74;
then
A45: dom ff c= dom ufs by GRFUNC_1:2;
dom ff is lower & x in dom ff by A6,A43,A44,FUNCT_1:1;
then y in dom ff by A42;
hence y in dom ufs by A45;
end;
A46: dom ufs = c
proof
defpred P[set] means $1 in c & not $1 in dom ufs;
assume dom ufs <> c;
then consider x being object such that
A47: not (x in dom ufs iff x in c) by TARSKI:2;
reconsider x as Element of R by A29,A47;
A48: P[x] by A47;
consider x0 being Element of R such that
A49: P[x0] and
A50: not ex y being Element of R st x0 <> y & P[y] & [y,x0] in the
InternalRel of R from WFMin(A48, A5 );
set nv = x0 .--> H.[x0, ufs | r-Seg x0], nf = ufs +* nv;
A51: dom nv = {x0} by FUNCOP_1:13;
A52: rng nf c= V
proof
ufs in PFuncs(c, V) by A29,A34,PARTFUN1:def 3;
then ufs is PartFunc of c, V by PARTFUN1:46;
then ufs | r-Seg x0 is PartFunc of c, V by PARTFUN1:11;
then
A53: ufs | r-Seg x0 in PFuncs(c, V) by PARTFUN1:45;
let x be object;
assume
A54: x in rng nf;
assume
A55: not x in V;
then rng nf c= rng ufs \/ rng nv & not x in rng ufs by A34,FUNCT_4:17;
then
A56: x in rng nv by A54,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
rng nv = {H.[x0, ufs | r-Seg x0]} by FUNCOP_1:8;
then x = H.(x0, ufs | r-Seg x0) by A56,TARSKI:def 1;
hence contradiction by A55,A53,BINOP_1:17;
end;
A57: dom nf = dom ufs \/ dom nv by FUNCT_4:def 1;
dom nf c= c
proof
let x be object;
assume that
A58: x in dom nf and
A59: not x in c;
not x in dom ufs by A29,A59;
then x in dom nv by A57,A58,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
hence contradiction by A51,A59;
end;
then
A60: nf in PFuncs(c, V) by A52,PARTFUN1:def 3;
x0 in dom nv by A51,TARSKI:def 1;
then x0 in dom nf by A57,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then
A61: [x0, nf.x0] in nf by FUNCT_1:1;
reconsider nf as PartFunc of c, V by A60,PARTFUN1:46;
A62: now
let x be set;
assume
A63: x in dom nf;
per cases by A57,A63,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
suppose
A64: x in dom ufs;
A65: {x0} misses r-Seg x
proof
assume {x0} meets r-Seg x;
then consider y being object such that
A66: y in {x0} and
A67: y in r-Seg x by XBOOLE_0:3;
y = x0 by A66,TARSKI:def 1;
then [x0, x] in r by A67,WELLORD1:1;
hence contradiction by A40,A49,A64;
end;
not x in dom nv by A49,A64,TARSKI:def 1;
hence nf.x = ufs.x by FUNCT_4:11
.= H.[x, ufs | r-Seg x] by A24,A64
.= H.[x, nf | r-Seg x] by A51,A65,FUNCT_4:72;
end;
suppose
A68: x in dom nv;
A69: {x0} misses r-Seg x0
proof
assume {x0} meets r-Seg x0;
then consider x being object such that
A70: x in {x0} and
A71: x in r-Seg x0 by XBOOLE_0:3;
x = x0 by A70,TARSKI:def 1;
hence contradiction by A71,WELLORD1:1;
end;
A72: x = x0 by A68,TARSKI:def 1;
hence nf.x = nv.x0 by A68,FUNCT_4:13
.= H.[x0, ufs | r-Seg x0] by FUNCOP_1:72
.= H.[x, nf | r-Seg x] by A51,A72,A69,FUNCT_4:72;
end;
end;
dom nf is lower
proof
let x, y be object;
assume that
A73: x in dom nf and
A74: [y,x] in r;
assume
A75: not y in dom nf;
then
A76: not y in dom ufs by A57,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then not x in dom ufs by A40,A74;
then x in dom nv by A57,A73,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then
A77: x = x0 by TARSKI:def 1;
reconsider y as Element of R by A74,ZFMISC_1:87;
not y in dom nv by A57,A75,XBOOLE_0:def 3;
then y <> x0 by A51,TARSKI:def 1;
hence contradiction by A50,A74,A76,A77;
end;
then nf in fs by A6,A62;
then [x0, nf.x0] in ufs by A61,TARSKI:def 4;
hence contradiction by A49,FUNCT_1:1;
end;
then reconsider ufs as Function of c, V by A34,FUNCT_2:def 1,RELSET_1:4;
take ufs;
let x be Element of c;
thus thesis by A24,A46;
end;
assume PDR[ ];
then consider rk being Function of c, V such that
A78: rk is_recursively_expressed_by H;
let Y be set;
assume that
A79: Y c= c and
A80: Y <> {};
set m = inf (rk.:Y);
consider b being object such that
A81: b in Y by A80,XBOOLE_0:def 1;
A82: dom rk = c by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then rk.b in rk.:Y by A79,A81,FUNCT_1:def 6;
then m in rk.:Y by ORDINAL2:17;
then consider a being object such that
A83: a in dom rk and
A84: a in Y and
A85: rk.a = m by FUNCT_1:def 6;
reconsider a as set by TARSKI:1;
take a;
thus a in Y by A84;
assume r-Seg(a) /\ Y <> {};
then consider e being object such that
A86: e in r-Seg(a) /\ Y by XBOOLE_0:def 1;
A87: e in r-Seg a by A86,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
reconsider a as Element of c by A83;
reconsider rkra = rk | r-Seg a as Element of PFuncs(c,V) by PARTFUN1:45;
A88: rk.a = H.(a, rkra) by A78
.= sup rng rkra by A4;
A89: e in Y by A86,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
then reconsider rke = rk.e as Ordinal by A79,FUNCT_2:5,ORDINAL1:13;
rke in rk.:Y by A82,A79,A89,FUNCT_1:def 6;
then
A90: m c= rk.e by ORDINAL2:14;
rke in rng rkra by A82,A79,A87,A89,FUNCT_1:50;
hence contradiction by A85,A90,A88,ORDINAL1:5,ORDINAL2:19;
end;
:: Uniqueness implies well-foundedness
theorem
for R being non empty RelStr, V being non trivial set st for H being
Function of [:the carrier of R, PFuncs(the carrier of R, V):], V, F1, F2 being
Function of the carrier of R, V st F1 is_recursively_expressed_by H & F2
is_recursively_expressed_by H holds F1 = F2 holds R is well_founded
proof
let R be non empty RelStr, V be non trivial set;
set c = the carrier of R, r = the InternalRel of R, PF = PFuncs(c, V), wfp =
well_founded-Part R;
consider a0, a1 being object such that
A1: a0 in V and
A2: a1 in V and
A3: a0 <> a1 by ZFMISC_1:def 10;
set F3 = c --> a1, F4 = wfp --> a0, F2 = F3 +* F4;
A4: dom F3 = c by FUNCOP_1:13;
defpred P[set,Function,set] means (ex x being set st x in dom $2 & $2.x = a1
) iff $3 = a1;
reconsider a0,a1 as set by TARSKI:1;
set a01 = {a0, a1};
A5: now
reconsider u = a1, v = a0 as Element of a01 by TARSKI:def 2;
let x be Element of c, y be Element of PF;
per cases;
suppose
A6: ex x being set st x in dom y & y.x = a1;
take u;
thus P[x,y,u] by A6;
end;
suppose
A7: not ex x being set st x in dom y & y.x = a1;
take v;
thus P[x,y,v] by A3,A7;
end;
end;
consider H being Function of [:c, PF:], a01 such that
A8: for x being Element of c, y being Element of PF holds P[x,y,H.(x,y)
] from BINOP_1:sch 3(A5);
A9: a01 c= V by A1,A2,ZFMISC_1:32;
then
A10: rng H c= V;
rng F3 \/ rng F4 c= {a0} \/ {a1} by XBOOLE_1:13;
then
A11: rng F3 \/ rng F4 c= a01 by ENUMSET1:1;
rng F2 c= rng F3 \/ rng F4 by FUNCT_4:17;
then rng F2 c= a01 by A11;
then
A12: rng F2 c= V by A9;
A13: rng H c= a01;
A14: dom H = [:c, PF:] by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then reconsider H as Function of [:c, PF:], V by A10,FUNCT_2:def 1,RELSET_1:4
;
A15: dom F4 = wfp by FUNCOP_1:13;
A16: dom F2 = dom F3 \/ dom F4 by FUNCT_4:def 1
.= c by A4,A15,XBOOLE_1:12;
then reconsider F2 as Function of c, V by A12,FUNCT_2:def 1,RELSET_1:4;
A17: F2 is_recursively_expressed_by H
proof
let x be Element of c;
reconsider F2r = F2 | r-Seg x as Element of PF by PARTFUN1:45;
per cases;
suppose
A18: x in wfp;
now
let z be set;
A19: r-Seg x c= wfp by A18,Th4;
assume z in dom F2r;
then
A20: z in r-Seg x by RELAT_1:57;
then F2r.z = F2.z by FUNCT_1:49
.= F4.z by A15,A20,A19,FUNCT_4:13
.= a0 by A20,A19,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence F2r.z <> a1 by A3;
end;
then
A21: H.(x, F2r)<>a1 by A8;
A22: H.[x, F2r] in rng H by A14,FUNCT_1:def 3;
F4.x = a0 by A18,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence F2.x = a0 by A15,A18,FUNCT_4:13
.= H.(x, F2 | r-Seg x) by A13,A21,A22,TARSKI:def 2;
end;
suppose
A23: not x in wfp;
then not r-Seg x c= wfp by Th9;
then consider z being object such that
A24: z in r-Seg x and
A25: not z in wfp;
A26: r-Seg x c= c by Th3;
then
A27: z in dom F2r by A16,A24,RELAT_1:57;
A28: F2r.z = F2.z by A24,FUNCT_1:49
.= F3.z by A15,A25,FUNCT_4:11
.= a1 by A24,A26,FUNCOP_1:7;
thus F2.x = F3.x by A15,A23,FUNCT_4:11
.= a1 by FUNCOP_1:7
.= H.(x, F2 | r-Seg x) by A8,A27,A28;
end;
end;
reconsider F1 = c --> a0 as Function of c, V by A1,FUNCOP_1:45;
assume
A29: for H being Function of [:c, PF:], V, F1, F2 being Function of c, V
st F1 is_recursively_expressed_by H & F2 is_recursively_expressed_by H holds F1
= F2;
assume not R is well_founded;
then wfp <> c by Th8;
then consider x being object such that
A30: not (x in wfp iff x in c) by TARSKI:2;
A31: F1 is_recursively_expressed_by H
proof
let x be Element of c;
reconsider F1r = F1 | r-Seg x as Element of PF by PARTFUN1:45;
A32: H.[x, F1r] in rng H by A14,FUNCT_1:def 3;
now
let z be set;
assume
A33: z in dom F1r;
then z in r-Seg x by RELAT_1:57;
then F1r.z = F1.z by FUNCT_1:49
.= a0 by A33,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence F1r.z <> a1 by A3;
end;
then
A34: H.(x, F1r) <> a1 by A8;
thus F1.x = a0 by FUNCOP_1:7
.= H.(x, F1 | r-Seg x) by A13,A34,A32,TARSKI:def 2;
end;
A35: F1.x = a0 by A30,FUNCOP_1:7;
F2.x = F3.x by A15,A30,FUNCT_4:11
.= a1 by A30,FUNCOP_1:7;
hence contradiction by A3,A31,A17,A29,A35;
end;
:: Well-foundedness implies uniqueness
theorem
for R being non empty well_founded RelStr, V being non empty set, H
being Function of [:the carrier of R, PFuncs(the carrier of R, V):], V, F1, F2
being Function of the carrier of R, V st F1 is_recursively_expressed_by H & F2
is_recursively_expressed_by H holds F1 = F2
proof
let R be non empty well_founded RelStr, V be non empty set;
set c = the carrier of R, r = the InternalRel of R;
let H be Function of [:c, PFuncs(c, V):], V, F1, F2 be Function of c, V;
assume that
A1: F1 is_recursively_expressed_by H and
A2: F2 is_recursively_expressed_by H;
defpred P[set] means F1.$1 <> F2.$1;
A3: dom F2 = c by FUNCT_2:def 1;
assume F1 <> F2;
then consider x being Element of c such that
A4: F1.x <> F2.x by FUNCT_2:63;
reconsider x as Element of R;
A5: R is well_founded;
A6: P[x] by A4;
consider x0 being Element of R such that
A7: P[x0] and
A8: not ex y being Element of R st x0 <> y & P[y] & [y,x0] in r from
WFMin(A6, A5);
A9: dom F1 = c by FUNCT_2:def 1;
F1 | r-Seg x0 = F2 | r-Seg x0
proof
set fr = F1 | r-Seg x0, gr = F2 | r-Seg x0;
assume
A10: not thesis;
A11: dom fr = r-Seg x0 by A9,Th3,RELAT_1:62;
dom gr = r-Seg x0 by A3,Th3,RELAT_1:62;
then consider x1 being object such that
A12: x1 in dom fr and
A13: fr.x1 <> gr.x1 by A11,A10;
A14: [x1, x0] in r by A11,A12,WELLORD1:1;
reconsider x1 as Element of R by A12;
A15: x1 <> x0 by A11,A12,WELLORD1:1;
fr.x1 = F1.x1 & gr.x1 = F2.x1 by A11,A12,FUNCT_1:49;
hence contradiction by A8,A13,A14,A15;
end;
then F1.x0 = H.(x0, F2 | r-Seg x0) by A1
.= F2.x0 by A2;
hence contradiction by A7;
end;
:: Well-foundedness and omega chains
definition
let R be RelStr, f be sequence of R;
attr f is descending means
for n being Nat holds f.(n+1)
<> f.n & [f.(n+1), f.n] in the InternalRel of R;
end;
:: omega chains
theorem
for R being non empty RelStr holds R is well_founded iff not ex f
being sequence of R st f is descending
proof
let R be non empty RelStr;
set c = the carrier of R, r = the InternalRel of R;
hereby
assume R is well_founded;
then
A1: r is_well_founded_in c;
given f being sequence of R such that
A2: f is descending;
A3: dom f = NAT by FUNCT_2:def 1;
then rng f <> {} by RELAT_1:42;
then consider a being object such that
A4: a in rng f and
A5: r-Seg(a) misses rng f by A1;
consider n being object such that
A6: n in dom f and
A7: a = f.n by A4,FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider n as Element of NAT by A6;
f.(n+1)<>f.n & [f.(n+1),f.n] in the InternalRel of R by A2;
then
A8: f.(n+1) in r-Seg(f.n) by WELLORD1:1;
f.(n+1) in rng f by A3,FUNCT_1:def 3;
hence contradiction by A5,A7,A8,XBOOLE_0:3;
end;
assume
A9: not ex f being sequence of R st f is descending;
assume not R is well_founded;
then not r is_well_founded_in c;
then consider Y being set such that
A10: Y c= c and
A11: Y <> {} and
A12: for a being object holds not a in Y or r-Seg(a) meets Y;
deffunc G(set,set) = the Element of r-Seg($2) /\ Y;
consider f being Function such that
A13: dom f = NAT and
A14: f.0 = the Element of Y and
A15: for n being Nat holds f.(n+1) = G(n,f.n) from NAT_1:sch 11;
defpred P[Nat] means f.$1 in Y;
A16: now
let n be Nat;
assume P[n];
then r-Seg(f.n) meets Y by A12;
then
A17: r-Seg(f.n) /\ Y <> {};
f.(n+1) = the Element of r-Seg(f.n) /\ Y by A15;
hence P[n+1] by A17,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
end;
A18: P[0] by A11,A14;
A19: for n being Nat holds P[n] from NAT_1:sch 2(A18, A16);
rng f c= c
proof
let y be object;
assume y in rng f;
then consider x being object such that
A20: x in dom f and
A21: y = f.x by FUNCT_1:def 3;
reconsider n = x as Element of NAT by A13,A20;
f.n in Y by A19;
hence thesis by A10,A21;
end;
then reconsider f as sequence of R by A13,FUNCT_2:2;
now
let n be Nat;
r-Seg(f.n) meets Y by A12,A19;
then
A22: r-Seg(f.n) /\ Y <> {};
f.(n+1) = the Element of r-Seg(f.n) /\ Y by A15;
then f.(n+1) in r-Seg(f.n) by A22,XBOOLE_0:def 4;
hence f.(n+1) <> f.n & [f.(n+1), f.n] in r by WELLORD1:1;
end;
then f is descending;
hence contradiction by A9;
end;