:: Complex Numbers - Basic Theorems
:: by Library Committee
::
:: Received April 10, 2003
:: Copyright (c) 2003-2018 Association of Mizar Users
:: (Stowarzyszenie Uzytkownikow Mizara, Bialystok, Poland).
:: This code can be distributed under the GNU General Public Licence
:: version 3.0 or later, or the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
:: License version 3.0 or later, subject to the binding interpretation
:: detailed in file COPYING.interpretation.
:: See COPYING.GPL and COPYING.CC-BY-SA for the full text of these
:: licenses, or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html and
:: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
environ
vocabularies XCMPLX_0, ARYTM_3, CARD_1, RELAT_1, ARYTM_1;
notations ORDINAL1, NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0;
constructors NUMBERS, XCMPLX_0, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0;
registrations XCMPLX_0, XXREAL_0, XREAL_0, ORDINAL1;
requirements SUBSET, BOOLE, NUMERALS, ARITHM;
theorems XCMPLX_0;
begin
reserve a, b, c, d, e for Complex;
:: '+' operation only
theorem :: AXIOMS'13
a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c;
theorem :: REAL_1'10
a + c = b + c implies a = b;
theorem :: INT_1'24
a = a + b implies b = 0;
:: using operation '*'
theorem Th4:
a * (b * c) = (a * b) * c;
theorem :: REAL_1'9
c <> 0 & a * c = b * c implies a = b
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
assume a * c = b * c;
then a * (c * c") = b * c * c" by Th4;
then a * 1 = b * c * c" by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
then a = b * (c * c");
then a = b * 1 by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_1'23 :: right to left - requirements REAL
a*b=0 implies a=0 or b=0;
theorem Th7: :: REAL_2'37
b <> 0 & a * b = b implies a = 1
proof
assume that
A1: b<>0 and
A2: a*b=b;
a*b*b"=1 by A1,A2,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
then a*1=1 by A2,Th4;
hence thesis;
end;
:: operations '+' and '*' only
theorem :: AXIOMS'18
a * (b + c) = a * b + a * c;
theorem :: REAL_2'99_1
(a + b + c) * d = a * d + b * d + c * d;
theorem :: REAL_2'101_1
(a + b) * (c + d) = a * c + a * d + b * c + b * d;
theorem :: SQUARE_1'5
2 * a = a + a;
theorem :: REAL_2'88_1
3 * a = a + a + a;
theorem :: REAL_2'88_2
4 * a = a + a + a + a;
:: using operation '-'
theorem :: REAL_1'36
a - a = 0;
theorem :: SQUARE_1'8
a - b = 0 implies a = b;
theorem :: REAL_2'1
b - a = b implies a = 0;
:: 2 times '-'
theorem :: REAL_2'17_2
a = a - (b - b);
theorem :: SEQ_4'3
a - (a - b) = b;
theorem :: REAL_2'2_3
a - c = b - c implies a = b;
theorem :: REAL_2'2_5
c - a = c - b implies a = b;
theorem :: REAL_2'24_1
a - b - c = a - c - b;
theorem :: REAL_2'29_1
a - c = (a - b) - (c - b);
theorem :: JGRAPH_6'1_1
(c - a) - (c - b) = b - a;
theorem :: REAL_2'15
a - b = c - d implies a - c = b - d;
:: using '-' and '+'
Lm1: a"*b"=(a*b)"
proof
per cases;
suppose
A1: a = 0 or b = 0;
then a" = 0 or b" = 0;
hence thesis by A1;
end;
suppose that
A2: a<>0 and
A3: b<>0;
thus a"*b"=a"*b"*1 .=a"*b"*((a*b)*(a*b)") by A2,A3,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=a"*a*(b"*b)*(a*b)"
.=1*(b"*b)*(a*b)" by A2,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=1*(a*b)" by A3,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=(a*b)";
end;
end;
Lm2: a/(b/c)=(a*c)/b
proof
thus a/(b/c)=a/(b*c") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*(b*c")" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*(b"*c"") by Lm1
.=a*c*b"
.=(a*c)/b by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
Lm3: b<>0 implies a/b*b=a
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
thus a/b*b=a*b"*b by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*(b"*b)
.=a*1 by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=a;
end;
Lm4: 1/a=a"
proof
thus 1/a= 1 * a" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a";
end;
Lm5: a<>0 implies a/a = 1
proof
assume
A1: a<>0;
thus a/a=a*a" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=1 by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
end;
:: using operations '-' and '+'
theorem :: REAL_2'17_1
a = a + (b - b);
theorem :: REAL_1'30
a = a + b - b;
theorem :: SQUARE_1'6
a = a - b + b;
theorem :: REAL_2'28_1
a + c = a + b + (c - b);
:: 2 times '-'
theorem :: REAL_2'22_1, INT_1'1, REAL_1'17
a + b - c = a - c + b;
theorem :: REAL_2'23_1
a - b + c = c - b + a;
theorem :: REAL_2'28_2
a + c = a + b - (b - c);
theorem :: REAL_2'29_3
a - c = a + b - (c + b);
theorem :: REAL_2'13
a + b = c + d implies a - c = d - b;
theorem :: REAL_2'14
a - c = d - b implies a + b = c + d;
theorem :: REAL_2'16
a + b = c - d implies a + d = c - b;
:: 3 times '-'
theorem :: REAL_1'27
a - (b + c) = a - b - c;
theorem :: REAL_1'28
a - (b - c) = a - b + c;
theorem :: REAL_2'18
a - (b - c) = a + (c - b);
theorem :: REAL_2'29_2
a - c = (a - b) + (b - c);
theorem :: REAL_1'29
a * (b - c) = a * b - a * c;
theorem :: REAL_2'98
(a - b) * (c - d) = (b - a) * (d - c);
theorem :: REAL_2'99_4
(a - b - c) * d = a * d - b * d - c * d;
:: using operations '-' and '*', '+'
theorem :: REAL_2'99_2
(a + b - c) * d = a * d + b * d - c * d;
theorem :: REAL_2'99_3
(a - b + c) * d = a * d - b * d + c * d;
theorem :: REAL_2'101_2
(a + b) * (c - d) = a * c - a * d + b * c - b * d;
theorem :: REAL_2'101_3
(a - b) * (c + d) = a * c + a * d - b * c - b * d;
theorem :: REAL_2'101_4
(a - b) * (e - d) = a * e - a * d - b * e + b * d;
:: using operation '/'
theorem :: REAL_2'67_1
a / b / c = a / c / b
proof
thus a/b/c =a*b"/c by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*b"*c" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*c"*b"
.=a/c*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a/c/b by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
:: 0
theorem Th49: :: REAL_2'19
a / 0 = 0
proof
thus a/0 = a*0" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= 0;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'42_2
a <> 0 & b <> 0 implies a / b <> 0;
:: 2 times '/'
theorem :: REAL_2'62_4
b <> 0 implies a = a / (b / b)
proof
A1: a=a/1;
assume b<>0;
hence thesis by A1,Lm5;
end;
Lm6: (a/b) * (c/d) = (a*c)/(b*d)
proof
thus (a/b) * (c/d) =(a*b")*(c/d) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=(a*b")*(c*d") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=(a*c)*(b"*d")
.=(a*c)*(b*d)" by Lm1
.=(a*c)/(b*d) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
Lm7: (a/b)"=b/a
proof
per cases;
suppose
A1: a = 0;
hence (a/b)" =b*0" .=b/a by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
suppose
A2: b = 0;
hence (a/b)" =(a*0")" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=b/a by A2;
end;
suppose
A3: a<>0 & b<>0;
(a/b) * (b/a) =(a*b)/(a*b) by Lm6;
then (a/b)*(b/a) = 1 by A3,Lm5;
hence thesis by A3,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
end;
end;
Lm8: a*(b/c) = (a*b)/c
proof
thus a*(b/c) = (a/1)*(b/c) .= (a*b)/(1*c) by Lm6
.= (a*b)/c;
end;
theorem :: TOPREAL6'5
a <> 0 implies a / (a / b) = b
proof
assume
A1: a <> 0;
thus a/(a/b) = a * (a/b)" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a * (b/a) by Lm7
.= a*b/a by Lm8
.= a/a*b by Lm8
.= 1 * b by A1,Lm5
.= b;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'31
c <> 0 & a / c = b / c implies a = b
proof
assume that
A1: c<>0 and
A2: a/c =b/c;
a=b/c*c by A1,A2,Lm3;
hence thesis by A1,Lm3;
end;
:: 3 times '/'
Lm9: b<>0 implies a=a*b/b
proof
A1: a=a*1;
assume b<>0;
then a=a*(b/b) by A1,Lm5;
then a=a*(b*b") by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
then a=a*b*b";
hence thesis by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'74
a / b <> 0 implies b = a / (a / b)
proof
assume
A1: a/b<>0;
then b<>0 by Th49;
then a/b*b = a by Lm3;
hence thesis by A1,Lm9;
end;
:: 4 times '/'
Lm10: c<>0 implies a/b=(a*c)/(b*c)
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
thus a/b =a*b"*1 by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*b"*(c*c") by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=(a*c)*(b"*c")
.=(a*c)*(b*c)" by Lm1
.=(a*c)/(b*c) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'55_1
c <> 0 implies a / b = (a / c) / (b / c)
proof
assume c<>0;
hence a/b=(a*c")/(b*c") by Lm10
.=(a/c)/(b*c") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=(a/c)/(b/c) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
:: 1
theorem :: SQUARE_1'16
1 / (1 / a) = a
proof
thus 1/(1/a) = (1*a) /1 by Lm2
.= a;
end;
Lm11: (a*b")"=a"*b
proof
thus (a*b")"=a"*b"" by Lm1
.=a"*b;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'48_1
1 / (a / b) = b / a
proof
thus 1/(a/b)=1/(a*b") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=(a*b")" by Lm4
.=b*a" by Lm11
.=b/a by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem Th58:
a / b = 1 implies a = b
proof
assume
A1: a/b = 1;
then b <> 0 by Th49;
then a=1*b by A1,Lm3;
hence thesis;
end;
Lm12: a"=b" implies a=b
proof
assume a"=b";
then a=b"";
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th59: :: REAL_2'33_2
1 / a = 1 / b implies a = b
proof
assume 1/a=1/b;
then a"=1/b by Lm4;
then a" = b" by Lm4;
hence thesis by Lm12;
end;
:: 0 and 1
theorem :: REAL_1'37
a <> 0 implies a / a = 1 by Lm5;
theorem :: REAL_2'39
b <> 0 & b / a = b implies a = 1
proof
assume that
A1: b<>0 and
A2: b/a=b;
a <> 0 by A1,A2,Th49;
then b=b*a by A2,Lm3;
hence thesis by A1,Th7;
end;
:: using operations '/' and '+'
theorem Th62: :: REAL_1'40_1
a / c + b / c = (a + b) / c
proof
thus a/c + b/c =a*c" + b/c by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a*c" + b*c" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= (a+b)*c"
.= (a+b)/c by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'100_1
(a + b + e) / d = a / d + b / d + e / d
proof
thus (a+b+e)/d=(a+b)/d+e/d by Th62
.=a/d+b/d+e/d by Th62;
end;
:: 2
theorem :: SQUARE_1'15
(a + a) / 2 = a;
theorem :: SEQ_2'2_1
a/2 + a/2 = a;
theorem :: TOPREAL3'4
a = (a + b) / 2 implies a = b;
:: 3
theorem :: REAL_2'89_1
(a + a + a)/3 = a;
theorem :: SEQ_4'5
a/3 + a/3 + a/3 = a;
:: 4
theorem :: REAL_2'89_2
(a + a + a + a) / 4 = a;
theorem :: REAL_2'90
a/4 + a/4 + a/4 + a/4 = a;
theorem :: SEQ_2'2_2
a / 4 + a / 4 = a / 2;
theorem :: REAL_2'89_3
(a + a) / 4 = a / 2;
:: using operations '/' and '*'
theorem :: REAL_2'35_1
a * b = 1 implies a = 1 / b
proof
assume
A1: a*b=1;
then b<>0;
then a*1=1*b" by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
hence thesis by Lm4;
end;
theorem :: SQUARE_1'18
a * (b / c) = (a * b) / c by Lm8;
theorem :: REAL_2'80_1
a / b * e = e / b * a
proof
thus a/b*e=a*e/b by Lm8
.=e/b*a by Lm8;
end;
:: 3 times '/'
theorem :: REAL_1'35
(a / b) * (c / d) = (a * c) / (b * d) by Lm6;
theorem :: REAL_1'42
a / (b / c) = (a * c) / b by Lm2;
Lm13: (a/b)/(c/d)=(a*d)/(b*c)
proof
thus (a/b)/(c/d) = (a/b) * (c/d)" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=(a/b) * (d/c) by Lm7
.=(a*d)/(b*c) by Lm6;
end;
theorem Th78: :: SQUARE_1'17
a / (b * c) = a / b / c
proof
thus a/(b*c) = a*1/(b*c) .= a/b/(c/1) by Lm13
.= a/b/c;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'61_1
a / (b / c) = a * (c / b)
proof
thus a/(b/c)=(a*c)/b by Lm2
.=a*c*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*(c*b")
.=a*(c/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'61_2
a / (b / c) = c / b * a
proof
a/(b/c)=(a*c)/b by Lm2
.=a*c*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*(c*b")
.=a*(c/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th81: :: REAL_2'61_3
a / (b / e) = e * (a / b)
proof
thus a/(b/e)=(a*e)/b by Lm2
.=e*a*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=e*(a*b")
.=e*(a/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'61_4
a / (b / c) = a / b * c
proof
a/(b/c)=(a*c)/b by Lm2
.=c*a*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=c*(a*b")
.=c*(a/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
hence thesis;
end;
Lm14: a*(1/b)=a/b
proof
thus a/b=a*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*(1/b) by Lm4;
end;
Lm15: 1/c*(a/b)=a/(b*c)
proof
a/b/c =c"*(a/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=1/c*(a/b) by Lm4;
hence thesis by Th78;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'70
(a * b) / (c * d) = (a / c * b) / d
proof
thus a*b/(c*d)=1/c*(a*b/d) by Lm15
.=1/c*(a*b)/d by Lm8
.=1/c*a*b/d
.=a/c*b/d by Lm14;
end;
:: 4 times '/'
theorem :: REAL_1'82
(a / b) / (c / d) = (a * d) / (b * c) by Lm13;
theorem :: REAL_2'53
(a / c) * (b / d) = (a / d) * (b / c)
proof
thus a/c*(b/d)=a*b/(d*c) by Lm6
.=a/d*(b/c) by Lm6;
end;
theorem :: IRRAT_1'5
a / (b * c * (d / e)) = (e / c) * (a / (b * d))
proof
thus a/(b*c*(d/e)) = a/(b*c*(d*e")) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a/(c*(b*d*e"))
.= a/(c*((b*d)/e)) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a/((b*d)/(e/c)) by Th81
.= (e/c)*(a/(b*d)) by Th81;
end;
:: 0
theorem :: REAL_1'43
b <> 0 implies a / b * b = a by Lm3;
theorem :: REAL_2'62_1
b <> 0 implies a = a * (b / b)
proof
A1: a=a*1;
assume b<>0;
hence thesis by A1,Lm5;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'62_2
b <> 0 implies a = a * b / b by Lm9;
theorem :: REAL_2'78
b <> 0 implies a * c = a * b * (c / b)
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
thus a*c =a*1*c .=a*(b*b")*c by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=a*b*(b"*c)
.=a*b*(c/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
:: 2 times '/'
theorem :: REAL_1'38
c <> 0 implies a / b = (a * c) / (b * c) by Lm10;
theorem :: REAL_2'55_2
c <> 0 implies a / b = a / (b * c) * c
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
c*(a/(b*c))=c*((a*1)/(b*c)) .=c*(1/c*(a/b)) by Lm6
.=1/c*c*(a/b)
.=1*(a/b) by A1,Lm3
.=a/b;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'79
b <> 0 implies a * c = a * b / (b / c)
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
thus a*c =a*1*c .=a*(b*b")*c by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=a*b*(b"*c)
.=a*b*(b*c")" by Lm11
.=a*b/(b*c") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*b/(b/c) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem Th94: :: REAL_2'75
c <> 0 & d <> 0 & a * c = b * d implies a / d = b / c
proof
assume that
A1: c<>0 and
A2: d<>0;
assume a*c = b*d;
then a=b*d/c by A1,Lm9;
then a=d*(b/c) by Lm8;
hence thesis by A2,Lm9;
end;
theorem Th95: :: REAL_2'76
c <> 0 & d<>0 & a/d=b/c implies a*c = b*d
proof
assume that
A1: c<>0 and
A2: d<>0 and
A3: a/d=b/c;
c*(a/d)=b by A1,A3,Lm3;
then a*c/d=b by Lm8;
hence thesis by A2,Lm3;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'77
c <> 0 & d <> 0 & a * c = b / d implies a * d = b / c
proof
assume that
A1: c<>0 and
A2: d<>0;
assume a*c =b/d;
then a*c*d=b by A2,Lm3;
then a*d*c =b;
hence thesis by A1,Lm9;
end;
:: 3 times '/'
theorem :: REAL_2'55_3
c <> 0 implies a / b = c * (a / c / b)
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
thus a/b=a*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=c*(a/c)*b" by A1,Lm3
.=c*(a/c*b")
.=c*(a/c/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'55
c <> 0 implies a / b = a / c * (c / b)
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
thus a/b=a*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a/c*c*b" by A1,Lm3
.=a/c*(c*b")
.=a/c*(c/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
:: 1
theorem :: REAL_2'56:
a * (1 / b) = a / b by Lm14;
Lm16: 1/a"=a
proof
1/a"=a"" by Lm4
.=a;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'57
a / (1 / b) = a * b
proof
thus a/(1/b)=a/b" by Lm4
.=a*(1/b") by Lm14
.=a*b by Lm16;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'80_3
a / b * c = 1 / b * c * a
proof
a/b*c = 1/b*a*c by Lm14;
hence thesis;
end;
:: 3 times '/'
theorem :: REAL_2'51
(1 / a) * (1 / b) = 1 / (a * b)
proof
thus (1/a)*(1/b)=a"*(1/b) by Lm4
.=a"*b" by Lm4
.=(a*b)" by Lm1
.=1/(a*b) by Lm4;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'67_4
1 / c * (a / b) = a / (b * c) by Lm15;
:: 4 times '/'
theorem :: REAL_2'67_2
a / b / c = 1 / b * (a / c)
proof
a/b/c =a*b"/c by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*b"*c" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*c"*b"
.=a/c*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a/c/b by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
hence a/b/c =b"*(a/c) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=1/b*(a/c) by Lm4;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'67_3
a / b / c = 1 / c * (a / b)
proof
thus a/b/c =c"*(a/b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=1/c*(a/b) by Lm4;
end;
:: 1 and 0
theorem Th106: :: REAL_1'34
a <> 0 implies a * (1 / a) = 1
proof
assume
A1: a<>0;
thus a*(1/a)=a*a" by Lm4
.=1 by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'62_3
b <> 0 implies a = a * b * (1 / b)
proof
A1: a=a*1;
assume b<>0;
then a=a*(b/b) by A1,Lm5;
then a=a*(b*b") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*(b*(1/b)) by Lm4;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'62_6
b <> 0 implies a = a * (1 / b * b)
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
thus a=a*1 .=a*(1/b*b) by A1,Lm3;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'62_7
b <> 0 implies a = a * (1 / b) * b
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
a=a*1 .=a*(1/b*b) by A1,Lm3;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'62_5
b <> 0 implies a = a / (b * (1 / b))
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
thus a=a/1 .=a/(b*(1/b)) by A1,Th106;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'42_4
a <> 0 & b <> 0 implies 1 / (a * b) <> 0;
theorem :: JGRAPH_2'1
a <> 0 & b <> 0 implies (a / b) * (b / a) = 1
proof
assume
A1: a<>0 & b<>0;
(b/a)=(a/b)" by Lm7;
hence thesis by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
end;
:: using operations '*', '+' and '/'
theorem Th113: :: REAL_2'65
b <> 0 implies a / b + c = (a + b * c) / b
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
a/b+c =a/b+1*c .=a/b+b*b"*c by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=a/b+b*c*b"
.=a/b+c*b/b by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=(a+c*b)/b by Th62;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem Th114: :: REAL_2'92
c <> 0 implies a + b = c * (a / c + b / c)
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
hence a+b=c*(a/c)+b by Lm3
.=c*(a/c)+c*(b/c) by A1,Lm3
.=c*(a/c+b/c);
end;
theorem Th115: :: REAL_2'94
c <> 0 implies a + b = (a * c + b * c) / c
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
hence a+b=a*c/c+b by Lm9
.=a*c/c+b*c/c by A1,Lm9
.=(a*c+b*c)/c by Th62;
end;
theorem Th116: :: REAL_1'41_1
b <> 0 & d <> 0 implies a / b + c / d =(a * d + c * b) / (b * d )
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
assume d<>0;
hence a/b + c/d=(a*d)/(b*d) + c/d by Lm10
.=(a*d)/(b*d) + (c*b)/(b*d) by A1,Lm10
.=(a*d + c*b)/(b*d) by Th62;
end;
theorem Th117: :: REAL_2'96
a <> 0 implies a + b = a * (1 + b / a)
proof
assume
A1: a<>0;
hence a+b=a*(a/a+b/a) by Th114
.=a*(1+b/a) by A1,Lm5;
end;
:: 2
theorem :: REAL_2'91_1
a / (2 * b) + a / (2 * b) = a / b
proof
thus a/(2*b)+a/(2*b)=(a+a)/(2*b) by Th62
.=2*a/(2*b)
.=a/b by Lm10;
end;
:: 3
theorem :: REAL_2'91_2
a / (3 * b) + a / (3 * b) + a / (3 * b) = a / b
proof
thus a/(3*b)+a/(3*b)+a/(3*b)=(a+a)/(3*b)+a/(3*b) by Th62
.=(a+a+a)/(3*b) by Th62
.=3*a/(3*b)
.=a/b by Lm10;
end;
:: using operations '-' and '/'
Lm17: -a/b=(-a)/b
proof
thus -a/b=-(a*b") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=(-a)*b"
.=(-a)/b by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem Th120: :: REAL_1'40_2
a / c - b / c = (a - b) / c
proof
thus a/c - b/c = a/c+ -b/c .=a/c+(-b)/c by Lm17
.=(a+ -b)/c by Th62
.=(a-b)/c;
end;
theorem :: TOPREAL6'4
a - a / 2 = a / 2;
theorem :: REAL_2'100_4
(a - b - c) / d = a / d - b / d - c / d
proof
thus (a-b-c)/d=(a-b)/d-c/d by Th120
.=a/d-b/d-c/d by Th120;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'82
b <> 0 & d <> 0 & b <> d & a / b = e / d implies a / b = (a - e) / (b - d )
proof
assume that
A1: b<>0 and
A2: d<>0 and
A3: b<>d and
A4: a/b=e/d;
a*d=e*b by A1,A2,A4,Th95;
then
A5: a*(b-d)=(a-e)*b;
b-d<>0 by A3;
hence thesis by A1,A5,Th94;
end;
:: using operations '-', '/' and '+'
theorem :: REAL_2'100_2
(a + b - e) / d = a / d + b / d - e / d
proof
thus (a+b-e)/d=(a+b)/d-e/d by Th120
.=a/d+b/d-e/d by Th62;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'100_3
(a - b + e) / d = a / d - b / d + e / d
proof
thus (a-b+e)/d=(a-b)/d+e/d by Th62
.=a/d-b/d+e/d by Th120;
end;
:: using operations '-', '/' and '*'
theorem Th126: :: REAL_2'66_1
b <> 0 implies a / b - e = (a - e * b) / b
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
thus a/b-e=a/b+-e .=(a+(-e)*b)/b by A1,Th113
.=(a-e*b)/b;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'66_2
b <> 0 implies c - a / b = (c * b - a) / b
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
thus c-a/b = -(a/b-c) .=-(a-c*b)/b by A1,Th126
.=(-(a-c*b))/b by Lm17
.=(c*b-a)/b;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'93
c <> 0 implies a - b = c * (a / c - b / c)
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
hence a-b=c*(a/c)-b by Lm3
.=c*(a/c)-c*(b/c) by A1,Lm3
.=c*(a/c-b/c);
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'95
c <> 0 implies a - b = (a * c - b * c) / c
proof
assume
A1: c<>0;
thus a-b=a+-b .=(a*c+(-b)*c)/c by A1,Th115
.=(a*c-b*c)/c;
end;
theorem :: REAL_1'41_2
b <> 0 & d <> 0 implies a / b - c / d = (a * d - c * b) / (b * d)
proof
assume
A1: b<>0;
assume
A2: d<>0;
thus a/b - c/d =a/b + -c/d .=a/b + (-c)/d by Lm17
.=(a*d + (-c)*b)/(b*d) by A1,A2,Th116
.=(a*d - c*b)/(b*d);
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'97
a <> 0 implies a - b = a * (1 - b / a)
proof
assume
A1: a<>0;
thus a-b=a+-b .=a*(1+(-b)/a) by A1,Th117
.=a*(1+-b/a) by Lm17
.=a*(1-b/a);
end;
:: using operation '-', '/', '*' and '+'
theorem :: POLYEQ_1'24
a <> 0 implies c = (a * c + b - b) / a by Lm9;
:: using unary operation '-'
theorem :: REAL_2'2_2
-a = -b implies a = b;
theorem :: REAL_1'22: :: right to left - requirements REAL
-a = 0 implies a = 0;
theorem :: REAL_2'2_1
a + -b = 0 implies a = b;
theorem :: REAL_2'11
a = a + b + -b;
theorem :: REAL_2'17_1
a = a + (b + -b);
theorem :: INT_1'3
a = (- b + a) + b;
theorem :: REAL_2'6_1
- (a + b) = -a + -b;
theorem :: REAL_2'9_2
- (-a + b) = a + -b;
theorem :: REAL_2'10_2
a+b=-(-a+-b);
:: using unary and binary operation '-'
theorem :: REAL_1'83
-(a - b) = b - a;
theorem :: REAL_2'5
- a - b = - b - a;
theorem :: REAL_2'17_4
a = - b - (- a - b);
:: binary '-' 4 times
theorem :: REAL_2'26_1
- a - b - c = - a - c - b;
theorem :: REAL_2'26_2
- a - b - c = - b - c - a;
theorem :: REAL_2'26_4
- a - b - c = - c - b - a;
theorem :: JGRAPH_6'1_2
(c - a) - (c - b) = - (a - b);
:: 0
theorem :: REAL_1'19
0 - a = - a;
:: using unary and binary operations '-' and '+'
theorem :: REAL_2'10_3
a + b = a - - b;
theorem :: REAL_2'17_3
a = a - (b + -b);
theorem :: REAL_2'2_4
a - c = b + - c implies a = b;
theorem :: REAL_2'2_6
c - a = c + - b implies a = b;
:: '+' 3 times
theorem :: REAL_2'22_2
a + b - c = - c + a + b;
theorem :: REAL_2'23_2
a - b + c = - b + c + a;
theorem :: REAL_2'20_2
a - (- b - c) = a + b + c;
:: binary '-' 3 times
theorem :: REAL_2'20_1
a - b - c = - b - c + a;
theorem :: REAL_2'24_3
a - b - c = - c + a - b;
theorem :: REAL_2'24_4
a - b - c = - c - b + a;
:: using unary and binary operations '-' and '+'
theorem :: REAL_2'6_2
- (a + b) = - b - a;
theorem :: REAL_2'8
- (a - b) = - a + b;
theorem :: REAL_2'9_1
-(-a+b)=a-b;
theorem :: REAL_2'10_1
a + b = -(- a - b);
theorem :: REAL_2'25_1
- a + b - c = - c + b - a;
:: using unary and binary operations '-' and '+' (both '-' 2 times)
theorem :: REAL_2'25_2
- a + b - c = - c - a + b;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_1
- (a + b + c) = - a - b - c;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_2
- (a + b - c) = - a - b + c;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_3
- (a - b + c) = - a + b - c;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_5
- (a - b - c) = - a + b + c;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_4
- (- a + b + c) = a - b - c;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_6
- (- a + b - c) = a - b + c;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_7
- (- a - b + c) = a + b - c;
theorem :: REAL_2'27_8
- (- a - b - c) = a + b + c;
:: using unary operations '-' and '*'
theorem :: REAL_1'21_1
(- a) * b = -(a * b);
theorem :: REAL_1'21_2
(- a) * b = a * (- b);
theorem :: REAL_2'49_1
(- a) * (- b) = a * b;
theorem :: REAL_2'49_2
- a * (- b) = a * b;
theorem :: REAL_2'49_3
-(-a) * b = a * b;
theorem :: REAL_2'71_1
(-1) * a = -a;
theorem :: REAL_2'71_2
(- a) * (- 1) = a;
theorem Th181: :: REAL_2'38
b<>0 & a*b=-b implies a=-1
proof
assume that
A1: b<>0 and
A2: a*b=-b;
a*(b*b")=(-b)*b" by A2,Th4;
then a*1=(-b)*b" by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
hence a=-b*b" .=-1 by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
end;
:: Thx
theorem Th182:
a * a = 1 implies a = 1 or a = -1
proof
assume a*a=1;
then (a-1)*(a+1) =0;
then a-1=0 or a+1=0;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: TOPREAL6'3
-a + 2 * a = a;
theorem :: REAL_2'85_1
(a - b) * c = (b - a) * (- c);
theorem :: REAL_2'85_2
(a - b) * c = - (b - a) * c;
theorem :: TOPREAL6'2
a - 2 * a = -a;
:: using unary operations '-' and '/'
theorem :: REAL_1'39_1
-a / b = (-a) / b by Lm17;
theorem Th188: :: REAL_1'39_2
a / (- b) = -a / b
proof
a/(-b)=(a*(-1))/((-b)*(-1)) by Lm10;
then a/(-b)= (-a)/((-(-b))*1) .= -a/b by Lm17;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'58_1
- a / (- b) = a / b
proof
thus -a/(-b)=--a/b by Th188
.=a/b;
end;
theorem Th190: :: REAL_2'58_2
-(- a) / b = a / b
proof
thus -(-a)/b=--a/b by Lm17
.=a/b;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'58_3
(- a) / (- b) = a / b
proof
-(-a)/b=a/b by Th190;
hence thesis by Th188;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'58
(-a) / b = a / (-b)
proof
thus (-a)/b=-a/b by Lm17
.=a/(-b) by Th188;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'71_3
-a = a / (-1);
theorem :: REAL_2'71
a = (- a) / (-1);
theorem :: REAL_2'34
a / b = - 1 implies a = - b & b = - a
proof
assume
A1: a/b=-1;
then b <> 0 by Th49;
then a=(-1)*b by A1,Lm3;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'40
b <> 0 & b / a = - b implies a = -1
proof
assume that
A1: b<>0 and
A2: b/a=-b;
a <> 0 by A1,A2,Th49;
then b=(-b)*a by A2,Lm3;
then b=-b*a;
hence thesis by A1,A2,Th181;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'45_2
a <> 0 implies (-a) / a = -1
proof
assume
A1: a<>0;
thus (-a)/a=-a/a by Lm17
.=-1 by A1,Lm5;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'45_3
a <> 0 implies a / (- a) = -1
proof
assume
A1: a<>0;
thus a/(-a)=-a/a by Th188
.=-1 by A1,Lm5;
end;
Lm18: a<>0 & a=a" implies a=1 or a=-1
proof
assume
A1: a<>0;
assume a=a";
then a*a=1 by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
hence thesis by Th182;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'46_2
a <> 0 & a = 1 / a implies a = 1 or a = -1
proof
assume a<>0;
then a=a" implies a=1 or a=-1 by Lm18;
hence thesis by Lm4;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'83:
b <> 0 & d <> 0 & b <> -d & a / b = e / d implies a / b = (a + e) / (b + d )
proof
assume that
A1: b<>0 and
A2: d<>0 and
A3: b<>-d and
A4: a/b=e/d;
a*d=e*b by A1,A2,A4,Th95;
then
A5: a*(b+d)=(a+e)*b;
b+d<>0 by A3;
hence thesis by A1,A5,Th94;
end;
:: using operation '"'
theorem :: REAL_2'33_1
a" = b" implies a = b by Lm12;
theorem :: REAL_1'31
0" = 0;
:: using '"' and '*'
theorem
b <> 0 implies a = a*b*b"
proof
A1: a*(b*b") = a*b*b";
assume b <> 0;
then a*1 = a*b*b" by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
hence thesis;
end;
theorem :: REAL_1'24
a" * b" = (a * b)" by Lm1;
theorem :: REAL_2'47_1
(a * b")" = a" * b by Lm11;
theorem :: REAL_2'47_2
(a" * b")" = a * b
proof
thus (a"*b")"=a""*b"" by Lm1
.=a*b;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'42_1
a <> 0 & b <> 0 implies a * b" <> 0;
theorem :: REAL_2'42_3
a <> 0 & b <> 0 implies a" * b" <> 0;
theorem :: REAL_2'30_2
a * b" = 1 implies a = b
proof
assume a*b"=1;
then a/b = 1 by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
hence thesis by Th58;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'35_2
a * b = 1 implies a = b"
proof
assume
A1: a*b=1;
then b<>0;
hence thesis by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
end;
:: using '"', '*', and '+'
theorem Th211:
a <> 0 & b <> 0 implies a" + b" = (a + b)*(a*b)"
proof
assume that
A1: a <> 0 and
A2: b <> 0;
b" = b"*1;
then b" = b"*(a"*a) by A1,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
then b" = (a"*b")*a;
then
A3: b" = (a*b)"*a by Lm1;
a" = a"*1;
then a" = a"*(b"*b) by A2,XCMPLX_0:def 7;
then a" = (a"*b")*b;
then a" = (a*b)"*b by Lm1;
hence thesis by A3;
end;
Lm19: (- a)" = -a"
proof
thus (-a)"=1/(-a) by Lm4
.=-1/a by Th188
.=-a" by Lm4;
end;
:: using '"', '*', and '-'
theorem
a <> 0 & b <> 0 implies a" - b" = (b - a)*(a*b)"
proof
assume
A1: a <> 0 & b <> 0;
thus a" - b" = a" + -(b") .= a" + (-b)" by Lm19
.= (a + -b)*(a*-b)" by A1,Th211
.= (a + -b)*(-a*b)"
.= (a + -b)*-((a*b)") by Lm19
.= (b - a)*(a*b)";
end;
:: using '"' and '/'
theorem :: REAL_1'81
(a / b)" = b / a by Lm7;
theorem
(a"/b") = b/a
proof
thus (a"/b") = a"*b"" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= b/a by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem :: REAL_1'33_1
1 / a = a" by Lm4;
theorem :: REAL_1'33_2
1 / a" = a by Lm16;
theorem :: REAL_2'36_21
(1 / a)" = a
proof
1/a=a" implies (1/a)"=a;
hence thesis by Lm4;
end;
theorem :: REAL_2'33_3
1 / a = b" implies a = b
proof
1/a=1/b implies a=b by Th59;
hence thesis by Lm4;
end;
:: using '"', '*', and '/'
theorem
a/b" = a*b
proof
thus a/b" = a*b"" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a*b;
end;
theorem
a"*(c/b) = c/(a*b)
proof
thus a"*(c/b) = a"*(c*b") by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= c*(a"*b")
.= c*(a*b)" by Lm1
.= c/(a*b) by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
theorem
a"/b = (a*b)"
proof
thus a"/b = a"*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= (a*b)" by Lm1;
end;
:: both unary operations
theorem :: REAL_2'45_1
(- a)" = -a" by Lm19;
theorem :: REAL_2'46_1
a <> 0 & a = a" implies a = 1 or a = -1 by Lm18;
begin :: additional
:: from JORDAN4
theorem
a+b+c-b=a+c;
theorem
a-b+c+b=a+c;
theorem
a+b-c-b=a-c;
theorem
a-b-c+b=a-c;
theorem
a-a-b=-b;
theorem
-a+a-b=-b;
theorem
a-b-a=-b;
theorem
-a-b+a=-b;
begin :: Addenda
:: from REAL_2, 2005.02.05, A.T.
theorem
for a,b st b<>0 ex e st a=b/e
proof
let a,b;
assume
A1: b<>0;
per cases;
suppose
A2: a = 0;
take 0;
b/0 = b*0" by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
hence thesis by A2;
end;
suppose
A3: a <> 0;
take e=b/a;
thus a=a*1 .=a*(e*e") by A1,A3,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=a*e*e"
.=a*(a"*b)*e" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.=a*a"*b*e"
.=1*b*e" by A3,XCMPLX_0:def 7
.=b/e by XCMPLX_0:def 9;
end;
end;
:: from IRRAT_1, 2005.02.05, A.T.
theorem
a/(b*c*(d/e))=(e/c)*(a/(b*d))
proof
thus a/(b*c*(d/e)) = a/(b*c*(d*e")) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a/(c*(b*d*e"))
.= a/(c*((b*d)/e)) by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a/((b*d)/(e/c)) by Th81
.= (e/c)*(a/(b*d)) by Th81;
end;
:: from BORSUK_6, 2005.02.05, A.T.
theorem
((d - c)/b) * a + c = (1 - a/b)*c + (a/b) * d
proof
per cases;
suppose
A1: b = 0;
A2: a/b = a*b" by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= a*0 by A1;
thus ((d - c)/b) * a + c = ((d - c)*b") * a + c by XCMPLX_0:def 9
.= ((d - c)*0) * a + c by A1
.= (1 - (a/b))*c + (a/b) * d by A2;
end;
suppose
A3: b <> 0;
((d - c)/b) * a + c = ((d - c)/b) * a + c*1
.= ((d - c)/b) * a + c*(b/b) by A3,Lm5
.= ((d - c)/b) * a + c*b/b by Lm8
.= (d - c) * a / b + c*b/b by Lm8
.= ((d-c)*a + c*b)/ b by Th62
.= ((b-a)*c + a * d) / b
.= (b-a)*c/b + a*d/b by Th62
.= (b-a)*c/b + (a/b) * d by Lm8
.= ((b - a)/b)*c + (a/b) * d by Lm8
.= (b/b - a/b)*c + (a/b) * d by Th120
.= (1 - a/b)*c + (a/b) * d by A3,Lm5;
hence thesis;
end;
end;
:: Missing, 2005.07.04, A.T.
theorem
a <> 0 implies a * b + c = a * (b + (c/a))
proof
assume a <> 0;
hence a * b + c = a * b + a*(c/a) by Lm3
.= a * (b + (c/a));
end;